Epistemology. Sophists. Pragmatic rhetoric--focus on effects on the audience Isocrates, Cicero, Quintillian: integration of rhetoric & inquiry Language => power Plato: ban lyric & epic poets – Republic. Plato: Ideals.
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Every circle that is drawn or turned on a lathe in actual operations abounds in the opposite of the fifth entity, for it everywhere touches the straight, while the real circle, I maintain, contains in itself neither much nor little of the opposite character . . . The important thing is that, as I said a little earlier, there are two things, the essential reality and the particular quality . . . –Plato, Letters, 7.343a-c, tr. L. A. Post
It is clear then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion. – Rhetoric, I
Homer, admirable as he is in every other respect is especially so in this, that he alone among epic poets is not unaware of the part to be played by the poet himself in the poem. The poet should say very little in propria persona, as he is no imitator when doing that. Whereas the other poets are perpetually coming forward in person, and say but little, and that only here and there, as imitators, Homer, after a brief preface, brings forthwith a man, a woman, or some other character--no one of them characterless, but each with distinctive characteristics. –Poetics
. . . in philosophy we often compare the use of words with games and calculi which have fixed rules, but cannot say that someone who is using language must be playing such a game.--But if you say that our languages only approximate to such calculi you are standing on the brink of a misunderstanding. For then it may look as if what we were talking about were an ideal language.