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Parasites causing this clinical presentation How did the parasite produce this presentation (Pathogenesis) Mode of infection. Common Clinical Presentations of Parasitic Infections. Jaundice. Bronchial asthma. Diarrhoea. Appendicitis. Jaundice.

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common clinical presentations of parasitic infections
Parasites causing this clinical presentation

How did the parasite produce this presentation (Pathogenesis)

Mode of infection

Common Clinical Presentations of Parasitic Infections
  • Jaundice
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Diarrhoea
  • Appendicitis
jaundice
Jaundice

Yellowish coloration of skin and sclera with high bilirubin level in blood

  • Fascioliasis
  • Schistosomiasis.
  • Hydatid disease.
  • Ascariasis.
  • Amoebiasis.
  • Toxoplasma.
  • Falciparum malaria

Cell damage

how can p falciparum infection cause jaundice
How can P.falciparum infection cause jaundice?

Blood Vessel of the infected patient

Auto-antibodies

Normal RBCs

Infected RBCs

The produced (autoantibodies)will cross-react with hostRBCs

Haemolysis of RBCs haemolytic anaemia

The patient suffers from jaundice

& Haemoglobinuria

mode of infection with toxoplasma
Mode of Infection with Toxoplasma

1- Oral route (ingestion):

Contaminated food or drink

Handling cat excreta

Sporulated oocyst

Infected undercooked meat

Tissue cyst

Pseudocyst

2- Organ transplantation

Tachyzoites

3- Blood transfusion

4- Transplacental route

mode of infection
Mode of Infection

5- Contamination of mucous membrane & skin abrasion (in research workers & butchers)

Tachyzoites

bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma

Means: difficulty in breathing

Parasitic infections that may be associated with bronchial asthma:

1- Fascioliasis.

2- Ascariasis.

3- Ancylostomiasis.

4- Visceral larva migrans.

5- Bodies of living and dead mites and their excreta.

Cause of bronchial asthma:

An allergic reaction to parasite antigens and metabolites

Mediated by IgE

how can parasites produce bronchial asthma

Allergic dermatitis ?

Eosinophilic pneumonia

How can Parasites Produce Bronchial asthma?

Helminths antigens & metabolic byproducts

Fab

IgE is produced

Fc

Receptor for IgE

Eosinophil

Become activated

Receptor for IgE

Mast cell

Produce

Broncho-spasm

Pneumonitis

Urticaria

Mediators (substances)

Become activated

appendicitis
Appendicitis

Means: inflammation of appendix

Parasitic infection that may be associated with appendicitis:

Helminthic infections:

1- Taenia saginata infection.

2- Enterobius vermicularis infection.

3- Ascaris lumbricoides infection.

4- Trichuris trichiura infection.

Protozoal infections:

1- Entamoeba histolytica infection.

2- Balantidium coli infection.

Gravid segment

Trophozoite stage

diarrhoea
Diarrhoea

Increase in frequency, fluidity or volume of bowel motions

- Heterophyiasis

  • All tape worm infections
  • Ancylostomiasis
  • Ascariasis
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Trichinosis
  • Capillariasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis, Cylosporiasis, Isosporiasis.

Parasitic infections associated with diarrhoea:

mode of infection1
Mode of Infection

Insufficiently salted and grilled fish (encysted metacercaria)

Ancylostoma and Strongyloides

Heterophyes heterophyes

T.Spiralis (encysted larva)

C. philippinensis (infective larva in fish intestine)

Ascaris, Giardia, Cryptosporidium

mode of infection of tape worms
Mode of Infection of Tape worms

Beef (cysticercus bovis)

Pork (cysticercus cellulosae)

T.saginata

Salmon (plerocercoid larva)

T.solium

D.latum

Rat flea (cysticercoid nana, diminuta)

D.caninum

H.nana, H.diminuta

Dog flea(cysticercoid caninum)

stool examination for helminths causing diarrhoea reveals
Stool Examination for helminths causing diarrhoea reveals

Heterophyes egg

Capillaria egg

Ancylostoma egg

Fetilized & unfertilized Ascaris egg

H.nana egg

H.diminuta egg

Taenia egg or segment

Strongyloides larva

stool examination for protozoa causing diarrhoea
Stool Examination for Protozoa causing diarrhoea

By MZN stain

G.Lamblia cyst

By immunofluorescence

G.Lamblia trophozoite

Cryptosporidium oocysts

Unstained

Intestinal Microsporidia (1.2x5µ)

By MZN stain

Cyclospora oocysts

Unstained

By MZN stain

Isospora belli oocyst

complications
Complications
  • Amoeboma.
  • Perforation of ulcer.
  • Haemorrhage.
  • Stricture of colon.
  • Appendicitis
haematogenous spread of entamoeba trophozoites
Haematogenous spread of Entamoebatrophozoites

Brain abscess

Trophozoite

Lung abscess

Histolytic enzymes

Skin abscess

Liver abscess

Blood vessel

give reason
Give reason

Schistosoma can evade the immune system

Patient’s RBCs

Schistosoma can evade the immune system by:

- antigen disguise.

- antigen mimicry.

Similar to patient’s antigens

- antigen shedding.

- Cause inactivation of complement by protease activity.

eosinophil

Mast cell

- Produce blocking antibodies.