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Parasites causing this clinical presentation How did the parasite produce this presentation (Pathogenesis) Mode of infection. Common Clinical Presentations of Parasitic Infections. Jaundice. Bronchial asthma. Diarrhoea. Appendicitis. Jaundice.

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common clinical presentations of parasitic infections
Parasites causing this clinical presentation

How did the parasite produce this presentation (Pathogenesis)

Mode of infection

Common Clinical Presentations of Parasitic Infections
  • Jaundice
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Diarrhoea
  • Appendicitis

Yellowish coloration of skin and sclera with high bilirubin level in blood

  • Fascioliasis
  • Schistosomiasis.
  • Hydatid disease.
  • Ascariasis.
  • Amoebiasis.
  • Toxoplasma.
  • Falciparum malaria

Cell damage

how can p falciparum infection cause jaundice
How can P.falciparum infection cause jaundice?

Blood Vessel of the infected patient


Normal RBCs

Infected RBCs

The produced (autoantibodies)will cross-react with hostRBCs

Haemolysis of RBCs haemolytic anaemia

The patient suffers from jaundice

& Haemoglobinuria

mode of infection with toxoplasma
Mode of Infection with Toxoplasma

1- Oral route (ingestion):

Contaminated food or drink

Handling cat excreta

Sporulated oocyst

Infected undercooked meat

Tissue cyst


2- Organ transplantation


3- Blood transfusion

4- Transplacental route

mode of infection
Mode of Infection

5- Contamination of mucous membrane & skin abrasion (in research workers & butchers)


bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma

Means: difficulty in breathing

Parasitic infections that may be associated with bronchial asthma:

1- Fascioliasis.

2- Ascariasis.

3- Ancylostomiasis.

4- Visceral larva migrans.

5- Bodies of living and dead mites and their excreta.

Cause of bronchial asthma:

An allergic reaction to parasite antigens and metabolites

Mediated by IgE

how can parasites produce bronchial asthma

Allergic dermatitis ?

Eosinophilic pneumonia

How can Parasites Produce Bronchial asthma?

Helminths antigens & metabolic byproducts


IgE is produced


Receptor for IgE


Become activated

Receptor for IgE

Mast cell





Mediators (substances)

Become activated


Means: inflammation of appendix

Parasitic infection that may be associated with appendicitis:

Helminthic infections:

1- Taenia saginata infection.

2- Enterobius vermicularis infection.

3- Ascaris lumbricoides infection.

4- Trichuris trichiura infection.

Protozoal infections:

1- Entamoeba histolytica infection.

2- Balantidium coli infection.

Gravid segment

Trophozoite stage


Increase in frequency, fluidity or volume of bowel motions

- Heterophyiasis

  • All tape worm infections
  • Ancylostomiasis
  • Ascariasis
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Trichinosis
  • Capillariasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis, Cylosporiasis, Isosporiasis.

Parasitic infections associated with diarrhoea:

mode of infection1
Mode of Infection

Insufficiently salted and grilled fish (encysted metacercaria)

Ancylostoma and Strongyloides

Heterophyes heterophyes

T.Spiralis (encysted larva)

C. philippinensis (infective larva in fish intestine)

Ascaris, Giardia, Cryptosporidium

mode of infection of tape worms
Mode of Infection of Tape worms

Beef (cysticercus bovis)

Pork (cysticercus cellulosae)


Salmon (plerocercoid larva)



Rat flea (cysticercoid nana, diminuta)


H.nana, H.diminuta

Dog flea(cysticercoid caninum)

stool examination for helminths causing diarrhoea reveals
Stool Examination for helminths causing diarrhoea reveals

Heterophyes egg

Capillaria egg

Ancylostoma egg

Fetilized & unfertilized Ascaris egg

H.nana egg

H.diminuta egg

Taenia egg or segment

Strongyloides larva

stool examination for protozoa causing diarrhoea
Stool Examination for Protozoa causing diarrhoea

By MZN stain

G.Lamblia cyst

By immunofluorescence

G.Lamblia trophozoite

Cryptosporidium oocysts


Intestinal Microsporidia (1.2x5µ)

By MZN stain

Cyclospora oocysts


By MZN stain

Isospora belli oocyst

  • Amoeboma.
  • Perforation of ulcer.
  • Haemorrhage.
  • Stricture of colon.
  • Appendicitis
haematogenous spread of entamoeba trophozoites
Haematogenous spread of Entamoebatrophozoites

Brain abscess


Lung abscess

Histolytic enzymes

Skin abscess

Liver abscess

Blood vessel

give reason
Give reason

Schistosoma can evade the immune system

Patient’s RBCs

Schistosoma can evade the immune system by:

- antigen disguise.

- antigen mimicry.

Similar to patient’s antigens

- antigen shedding.

- Cause inactivation of complement by protease activity.


Mast cell

- Produce blocking antibodies.