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Age of Enlightenment

Age of Enlightenment

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Age of Enlightenment

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  1. Age of Enlightenment

  2. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Birth of Reformation - what does reform mean? • Old way of thinking: • Existing laws/ideas were established thru religion or gov’t. • Don’t question existing ideas – proven & accepted. • Old ways of thinking = • Outdated • Uneducated (?) • Stale

  3. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • People in Europe begin questioning everything in life (gov’t, religion, law, etc.) • New way of investigating life is called the Enlightenment. • This new way of thinking led to a complete overhaul in European life.

  4. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Ideas from philosophers of the era: • Right to life, liberty, and property • Freedom of speech • Social contract between gov’t & people • Separation of powers Sound familiar? Foundation of future democratic societies!!

  5. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Despite the belief that men should be treated equally – women were not held to same belief. • Women were excluded from: • Education • Work • Politics • “Woman was specifically made to please man.” – Jean-Jacques Rosseau (French Philosopher).

  6. Homework #1 – 5/12/14 • What was used to create the existing laws, prior to the Enlightenment? • Why were old rules/beliefs being questioned? (Hint: three answers) • What is the title is given to questioning all aspects of life? • What were 2 ideas born out of the Enlightenment? • Who was NOT treated equally during the Enlightenment?

  7. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Feelings of revolution begin to spark across the globe, due to Enlightenment. • In North America, British colonies reject British rule; revolution quickly followed. • When North American colonies are freed, they use Enlightened ideals to form a new nation: • Declaration of Independence • Constitution

  8. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • France, considered the center of Enlightenment, also suffers through a revolutionary time. • French rebels used U.S. revolution for inspiration. • French poor class questions the unfairness of their lives compared to upper class.

  9. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • HUGE income gap ($) between rich & poor leads to envy/jealousy. • Poor class paid heavy taxes & received very few rights; upper class didn’t. • Poor people of France resent King Louis XVI and his oppressive rule.

  10. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • French poor class begins creating laws & rights to protect rights of ALL French (National Assembly). • Upper class joins their cause. • French prison (Bastille) is overthrown by angry mob on July 14, 1789: • Guards killed • Political prisoners released

  11. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Overthrown Bastille is symbolic: Bastille = old order/old ways of thinking Overthrowing Bastille = overthrowing old order

  12. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • 1 month after the Bastille falls, National Assembly passes Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. • French declaration mimics U.S. Declaration of Independence. • French declaration guarantees personal freedoms like: • Equal justice • Freedom of speech • Freedom of religion

  13. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Amid revolution, a French constitution is developed stripping king of authority. • French allies (Prussia & Austria) demand King Louis XVI be given power back. • Allies feared revolution in their own countries • France declares war on both allies. • New gov’t put in place (1792) ending King Louis XVI rule. • Found guilty of treason • Executed using guillotine

  14. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Group of radicals (Jacobins) take charge of French gov’t; led by Maximilien Robespierre. • Robespierre led a period named “Reign of Terror”: • Arrested anyone suspected as enemy of revolution • Executed by guillotine • 40,000 (est.) are killed during this time • Thousands more left in overcrowded prisons

  15. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • In 1794, Robespierre is overthrown and executed. • Group of moderate leaders take control of French gov’t; bring stability & order to country. • Ends the turmoil of French Revolution.

  16. Homework #2 – 5/14/14 • What was the cause of the revolutionary ideas to spark across the globe? • What event did the French use as inspiration for their own revolution? • What was the cause of French poor class feelings of envy/jealousy towards upper class? • What was overthrowing the Bastille symbolic of? • What document did the French declaration mimic? • Why did Austria & Prussia demand that King Louis XVI be given power back? • How many people were estimated to be killed during the Reign of Terror?

  17. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • France still at war while revolution was ongoing. • Britain, Holland, & Spain join against France. • In need of leadership, France turns to Napoleon Bonaparte to lead armies. • After winning a few battles, Napoleon gains national support. • While French gov’t loses support of people. • Napoleon takes control of French gov’t – names himself emperor of France.

  18. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Napoleon has sights set on more than just France – wants control of Europe. • Takes army throughout Europe • Is welcomed into other countries – seen as someone who to free them from oppressive rule • Napoleon nearly has complete control of Europe when he invades Russia. • Invading Russia weakens on Napoleon’s forces. • Enemies gang up on Napoleon @ Waterloo – Napoleon’s army too weak to fight back.

  19. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • After Napoleon is defeated, Congress of Vienna meets and restores monarchies to power. • Balanced power among countries so no one was more powerful than others. • Most in Europe still wanted democracy, but were forced to live under monarchies…temporarily.

  20. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Despite attempts to restore monarchies, revolutions still occurred in Europe. • A new movement called Nationalism* spread across Europe. • * - intense feeling of national pride. • What’s another term for this? • Some nationalist rebellions succeed (Greece) while most fail (Italy & Poland).

  21. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Despite failures of most rebellions, real change had occurred in Europe. • Russia & France changed gov’t; Italy & Germany are formed because of nationalism. • After all the change in Europe, two new powers emerge: • United Kingdom (Britain) • Germany

  22. Homework #3 – 5/15/14 • Who did France turn to when they were fighting their war? • Why did some countries welcome Napoleon’s presence? • Where was Napoleon defeated? • What does the Congress of Vienna restore? • What is Nationalism? What’s another term for this? • What two new powers emerged after all the change in Europe?

  23. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Europe enters a period after Napoleonic war in which: • Economies modernize • Work is industrialized • Capitalism* changes the landscape of European economies. • * - private ownership of resources for profit. • Stocks are sold; factories are built; corporations are created – (Modern economy today).

  24. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Industries created by new economic landscape; Europe enters the Industrial Revolution. • “Revolution” brings improved technology – making life easier. • Countries that benefited from improved technology had: • More food • Lived longer

  25. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Machines replace manual labor; workers still needed to operate machinery. • Overall, life in Europe improved…for most. • Workers face LONG hours and little pay for their efforts.

  26. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Day in the life of a child worker (6-8 yrs. old): • Wake up @ 4:00 AM • Arrive @ factory by 5:00 AM • Work from 5:00 – 12:00 PM • Lunch break from 12:00 – 12:40 (only break) • Work from 12:40 – 10:00 PM • No dinner break; children ate while they worked. • Children who became drowsy/sleepy were whipped by overseer. • Arrive @ home by 11:00 to sleep for next day • Children “earn” between $.5-.15 cents PER DAY. • 6 day work weeks (only Sundays) were given off.

  27. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • All workers face similar (or worse) conditions that child workers faced. • Many still worked – no other options. • Child workers were in high demand for factory work. Why do you think that is?

  28. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • Working conditions were harsh: • No sick time • No vacation days • Fired if a no-show • Despite harsh working conditions, Europe’s industrial revolution produced: • Seed drillmachine plants seeds • Steam engine railroads, steam boats • Spinning jenny & flying shuttle sped up thread and cloth making.

  29. Homework #4 – 5/19/14 • What were 2 results of the industrial revolution in Europe? • What is capitalism? • What were 2 benefits that countries enjoyed who were apart of the “revolution”? • What did machines replace in factories? • How much were children workers paid? • How many days a week did they work? • What 3 reasons explain why working conditions were harsh?

  30. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • As Europe advanced, a need for raw materials developed. • European countries search for colonies/land to produce raw materials for their new industries. • Imperialism* begins to sweep across European powers. • * - policy by which stronger nations extend their control over weaker nations.

  31. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • With imperialism: • More land ownership = more power • Colonized nations = trade/export partners • The main target of this new policy was Africa*. • * - had wealth of raw materials…and workers. • European nations had better weapons; African nations had no chance to defend themselves. • Europeans justified expansion through this belief: “We’re European; you’re not…sooo, we’re better than you”.

  32. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • European countries view Africa as a way to fill their thirst for resources & power. • To make splitting up Africa “civilized”, 14 European nations meet at Berlin Conference. • European leaders divide continent WITHOUT: • African leaders present • Considering language barriers & consent of natives • Considering impact of local customs/economy

  33. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • After dividing Africa, Europe turned its attention to the Ottoman Empire (Middle East). • Britain moved to Far East, colonizing: • India • Parts of China (Hong Kong) • Singapore, Malaysia, Burma • France colonized: • Vietnam • Cambodia

  34. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • British rule in India is perfect example of why European Imperialism was terrible. • For example: • Small Indian industries couldn’t compete w/ British. • Taxes were too expensive. • Indians accused British Christians of weakening local religions. • British were racist towards Indians.

  35. “If it’s too loud, you’re too old” • European nations did more harm than good when they colonized the globe. • Some colonized nations modernize immediately: • Railroads/roads/bridges are built • Dams built to improve irrigation • Despite European influence, colonized nations begin to rebel using nationalist ideals. • Most colonized nations (China, Vietnam, parts of Africa) eventually gain freedom.

  36. Homework #5 – 5/20/14 • What is imperialism? • What were the 2 goals of imperialism? • Why were African nations unable to defend themselves? • Why did 14 European leaders meet at the Berlin Conference to accomplish? • Who was absent from the Berlin Conference? • List the 4 examples as to why British colonization of India was a terrible idea. • What two modern advancements took place in colonized nations?