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Age of Enlightenment

Age of Enlightenment

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Age of Enlightenment

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  1. Age of Enlightenment 18th Century Europe

  2. Enlightenment • New Ideas that spread throughout the literate sectors of European society. That… • Economic change • Political reform • Were becoming common place • Because it was… • POSSIBLE!!! What “old” invention becomes the center of attention once again? printing press

  3. The “Enlightened” Individual The Philosophe • Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great publicists of the new thinking  CHANGE & PROGRESS! • They were students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms. • Disagreements were encouraged – why?

  4. Changes in Western thought • Forms of government (authority) • Economic prosperity • Spreading of knowledge

  5. Newtonian view Universal gravitation Three laws of motion Questions?? God/Bible

  6. The Encyclopedia • Denis Diderot • collection of ideas • 17 volumes; 11 illustrations • 100+ authors • Condemned by the Church

  7. Religion attacked • Deism • the belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of God • rational thought -questions divine right! • Voltaire • Well respected writer (20,000 writings, etc) • The execution of Jean Calas • Case showed the fruits of religious fanaticism and the need for RATIONAL REFORM of the JUDICIAL processes. • Secular values are more important than religious ones!

  8. Religion: the greatest enemy! • Voltaire: Philosophical Dictionary • Uses humor to point out inaccuracies of bible • Hume: Of Miracles • “the greatest miracle was that people believed in miracles” • Kant: Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone • Transform religion to encourage virtuous living • Most philosophes =>not atheist • Explain Christianity in terms of natural causes over miracles and piety

  9. Jewish thinkers • Some Enlightenment thinkers looked down upon Judaism; more primitive than Christianity • Spinoza: secularized version of Judaism • use reason to conceptualize traditional thought • Ethics- spiritual and material worlds; one in the same • Excommunicated at age 24 • Mendelsohn: assimilationist • “Jewish Socrates” • Loyalty to Judaism AND STILL BE RATIONAL/LOGICAL

  10. Women and the Enlightenment • Salons- useful/social environment for ideas • Women added “fashionable luster” [OPPORTUNITY] • Women were well connected to political figures • Their voices are being heard! • Montesquieu- women ARE NOT naturally inferior; women need a WIDER ROLE in society; PROGRESS • Diderot- Encyclopedia; better lives; no progress • Rousseau-women should be educated for SUBORDINATE to men; to bear and rear children

  11. Mary Wollstonecraft Criticizes Rousseau “sensual slaves of men”-NOT To deny opportunities and GOOD education for women “WOULD IMPEDE PROGRESS OF ALL HUMANITY”

  12. VoltaireFrancis-Marie Arouet Versatile writer Plays, poems, novels, essays, history, science 20,000 letters 2,000 books/pamphlets Advocacy for civil liberties Freedoms of: Religion Expression Free trade Separation of church & state He was a major influence on the American and French revolutions and constitutions!

  13. MontesquieuCharles-Louis de Secondat Political thinker Philosopher Studied the classics Ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Byzatines Separation of Powers Three Branch government Executive Legislative Judicial FINGERPRINTS ARE ALL OVER THE U.S. CONSTITUTION !

  14. RousseauJean-Jacques Romanticism French expression=open mindedness Life, Liberty, Property (Locke) Lead writer of modern day political and social thought “Society is more important than the individual”

  15. ThePhysiocrats The “Government of Nature”

  16. Adam Smith (1723-1790) • University of Glasgow, Scotland. • On his travels to France, he was influenced by the writings of the physiocrats. • The Wealth of Nations • An attack on • mercantilist system. • Absolutism

  17. Purpose of resources… Mercantilism Smith RESOURCES water, air, soil, minerals are boundless -Use resources for the good of humankind; everyone gets a piece; no reason for people to be poor • RESOURCES are limited and scarce, • personal wealth only at the expense of others

  18. Adam Smith’s Attack on Mercantilism • He argued that the basic unit for social analysis should be the nation, not the state. • State: refers to leaders • Nation: refers to the people • He WAS AGAINST the belief that trade was a zero-sum game • It was a positive-sum game. • Both nations (sides) gained. • Win-Win!

  19. Basic Capitalist Principles:a working relationship • Goods and services are produced for profitable exchange. • Human labor power is a commodity for sale  LABOR IS THE SOURCE OF VALUE. Goods & Service Businesses Households Consumer Spending Wages Labor & Investments

  20. Enlightened Absolutism • European rulers who embrace ideas of the Enlightenment • Frederick the Great (Prussia) • Focus AGRICULUTRE • new codification of laws: legal system more equal • reduced aristocratic influence helps monarch • Joseph II (Austria) • religious toleration (property, schools, institutions) • took church lands helps monarch • built roads; opened rivers; tax land of nobles helps monarch • Catherine II (Russia) • allowed nobles to rule locally • rid Russia of trade barriers (regional) • successful war with Ottomans • Crimea gained; access to Black Sea

  21. Write a R.A.F.T.