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U.S. History Chapter 21 Section 1. Leading Up to War. Words to Know. Dictator : A ruler with complete power in a country Fascist : A member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator Nazi : A member of a political party in Germany led by Adolf Hitler

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Leading up to war

U.S. History

Chapter 21

Section 1

Leading Up to War

Words to know
Words to Know

  • Dictator: A ruler with complete power in a country

  • Fascist: A member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator

  • Nazi: A member of a political party in Germany led by Adolf Hitler

  • Appeasement: The policy of giving into someone’s demands in order to keep peace

The rise of dictators
The Rise of Dictators

  • 1920s: many European countries still recovering from WWI:

    • Economics

  • Some freedom based countries kept same governments

  • Other countries turned to dictators for help

Communism in the soviet union
Communism in the Soviet Union

  • 1917: Revolution:

    • Communist party revolted

  • After revolution, Russia changed its name to U.S.S.R.:

    • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:

      • (Soviet Union)


Russian dictator
Russian Dictator

  • 1924: Joseph Stalin:

    • Cruel Leader

    • Most Soviets did not dare to challenge him

    • At least 10million Soviets will killed during his rule:

      • (40-60million)

Stalin cont
Stalin cont.

  • Born in 1879

  • Came from a poor background:

    • his father was a cobbler

    • mother was a peasant

  • Did well at school:

    • won a scholarship to go to a seminary where priests were trained

Stalin cont1
Stalin cont.

  • At the seminary Stalin turned to Marxism:

    • form the basis for the theory and practice of communism:

      • a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

  • Became a follower of Lenin

  • Went to secret meetings and distributed leaflets

Stalin cont2
Stalin cont.

  • Between 1902 and 1913 he was arrested 8 times and exiled to Siberia:

    • He escaped 7 times!

  • In prison he adopted the name Stalin:

    • Translates as "Man of Steel”:

      • He felt that it would be good for his image

  • Very good organizer and the part he played in the November1917 Revolution was probably small:

    • skills he gained while helping to organize the Bolshevik Party were to prove invaluable

Stalin cont3
Stalin cont.

  • After 1917, he was rewarded with a number of seemingly unimportant party positions which nobody else wanted:

    • gave Stalin insight into who could be trusted to support him and who could not

  • Stalin was seen as dull by the intellectual elite of the Bolshevik Party:

    • They all made a fatal mistake in assuming that he was stupid.

Stalin cont4
Stalin cont.

  • Stalin became the undisputed leader of Russia in 1929:

    • he realized that Russia was far behind the west

    • have to modernize her economy very quickly if she was to survive.

  • Also a strong economy would lead to a strong military if Russia was going to survive threats from external forces.

  • A modernized Russia would also provide the farmers with the machinery they needed if they were going to modernize their farms - such as tractors.

Fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy

  • Not defeated in WWI:

    • Gov’t and economy were weakened

  • Labor strikes and riots

  • Many people turned to political leader Benito Mussolini:

    • For change and hope


  • 1919: Mussolini started the Italian Fascist Party

  • Spoke a lot about is glories in war

  • 1922: Prime Minister

Totalitarian governments
Totalitarian Governments

  • Complete control over the everyday lives of its citizens

  • Individuals have no right to:

    • Think freely

    • Speak freely

    • Write freely

  • Spies to watch and report on every citizen

  • Many people were arrested, beaten, and killed for speaking out

Nazism in germany
Nazism in Germany

  • Germany suffered the most out of all countries

  • In hope to solve its problems the National Socialist Party took over:

    • Nazi’s were part of this party

    • Led by Adolf Hitler

Adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler

  • Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 

  • He quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work. 

  • His mother developed terminal cancer and was treated by a Jewish doctor who served the poor.  

  • After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.

Adolf hitler1
Adolf Hitler

  • Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient:

    • sleeping in bars

    • flophouses

    • shelters for the homeless:

      • including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists.  

  • During this period he developed:

    • prejudices about Jews

    • his interest in politics

    • debating skills.  

  • Vienna was a center of anti-Semitism:

    • The media's portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler's fascination.

Adolf hitler2
Adolf Hitler

  • May 1913:

    • Hitler, seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich.  

  • In January, the police came to his door with a draft notice from the Austrian government:

    • The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading enlistment.

    • Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate:

      • he was found "unfit...too weak...and unable to bear arms."

Hitler s world war i service
Hitler's World War I Service

  • Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery.  

  • He rose to the rank of lance corporal

  • In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital.  

  • After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918. 

  • Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries.  

  • Some Jews were leaders of these revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists.

Free corps
Free Corps

  • Paramilitary organization:

    • Made up of vigilante war veterans who banded together to fight the growing Communist insurgency:

      • Was taking over Germany.

    • The Free Corps crushed this insurgency.

      • Its members formed the corps of the Nazi "brown-shirts” which served as the Nazi party's army.

German worker s party
German Worker's Party

  • Soon after the war, Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit, and was assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker's Party:

    • members expressed a doctrine similar with Hitler's.  

    • He saw this party as a way to get his message out 

  • His hatred of the Jews became part of the organization's political platform.

German worker s party1
German Worker's Party

  • Hitler built up the party, converting it from discussion group to an actual political party.  

  • Advertising for the party's meetings appeared in anti-Semitic newspapers.  

  • Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points:

    • This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920. 

  • Hitler electrified the audience. 

  • Jews were the principal target of his diatribe.

German worker s party2
German Worker's Party

  • Among the 25 points were:

    • revoking the Versailles Treaty

    • confiscating war profits

    • taking land without compensation for use by the state

    • revoking civil rights for Jews

    • expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began. 

  • The name of the party was changed to the National Socialist German Worker's party:

    • The red flag with the swastika was adopted as the party symbol.

National socialist german worker s party
National Socialist German Worker's party

  • Hitler raised funds to a local newspaper, which appealed to anti-Semites, for the party

  • The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members:

    • many of whom were victims of high inflation

    • found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble.  

Hitler s rise to power
Hitler's Rise to Power

  • Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms.  

  • Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the oppression of Jews and Communists:

    • Create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years. 

  • Hitler's Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote in the 1930 elections.

Hitler s rise to power1
Hitler's Rise to Power

  • 1932-Hitler ran for President:

    • Won 30% of the vote

    • forcing the eventual victor into a runoff election.

    • A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his support.

  • President dies in 1934:

    • Hitler took over.  

  • Economy improves:

    • Hitler claimed credit and consolidated his position as a dictator

  • The German industrial machine was built up in preparation for war.

Leading up to war

  • Hitler said the Jews could no longer be German citizens

  • Jewish children no longer were allowed in German schools

  • All Jews were forced to wear yellow badges

The road to war
The Road to War

  • 1936: Hitler decided to move beyond Germany’s boundaries

  • Army crossed into the Rhineland:

    • Area between France and Germany

  • France and Great Britain complained but took no action:

    • Appeasement


War breaks out
War Breaks Out

  • 1939: German forces took control of all Czechoslovakia:

    • Next stop Poland

  • August 1939:

    • Hitler and Stalin agreed to attack Poland and divide country between them

  • 9/1/39: Germany strikes Poland:

    • Great Britain and France realize appeasement won’t work

    • Both declare war on Germany

Leading up to war

  • German forces invade:

    • Denmark

    • Norway

    • Netherlands

    • Belgium

    • Luxembourg

    • France

  • Next stop Great Britain

Class work
Class work