I. Italy A. Benito Mussolini- returned from WWI and organized his own political party called the Fascist Party B. Fascism relied on Dictatorship and Totalitarianism with emphasis on Nationalism and Militarism
Italy Cont. • Fascism appealed to upper/middle class • It promised to preserve existing social classes and ownership of private property • This was the opposite of Communism where there was no social classes and private property was owned by the Government. • Mussolini recognized this appeal of anti-communism and promoted cooperation between labor and management.
II. Mussolini as Dictator • Mussolini used the Black Shirts-his fascist followers– to drive communists and socialists out of office • The Fascists claimed their purpose was to stop the spread of communism
Dictator Continued • The Fascists became so powerful they marched to Rome to take over. • Rather than face civil war, King Victor Emanuel III, met with Mussolini and appointed him Premier • Mussolini gambled and won. The Italian army was much larger and more equipped than his Fascist force.
Dictator Continued E. The King was allowed to reign as a figurehead while Mussolini set up a dictatorship. • The government suspended basic liberties such as Freedom of Speech, Press and Trial by Jury G. Uniformed and secret police spied on everyone and Italy became a police state
III. Germany • The Weimer Republic followed the Kaiser in Germany after WWI. • Many Germans considered it traitorous due to the horrible conditions it left Germany in after the Treaty of Versailles. • Unemployment was high and inflation soared
IV. Nazi’s • Many groups tried to overthrow the Weimer Republic • One uprising known as the Beer Hall Putsch was led in part, by Adolf Hitler • Hitler used the frustrations Germans were feeling to gain support for his political group—The National Socialist German Workers Party • The Nazi’s were extremely Nationalistic, Anti-Semitic and Anti-Communist
V. Hitler A. While Hitler was in jail for the Beer Hall Putsch involvement, he wrote Mein Kampf- My Struggle B. He outlined his plan for racial purity through total elimination of all Jews and others he considered impure. C. Hitler led fiery speeches and promised to repeal the Treaty of Versailles and restore Germany’s Military power D. He also pledged to recover lost territory
VI. Hitler as Chancellor • The Nazi’s gained power and eventually Hitler was appointed Chancellor in January of 1933. • A fire broke out in the Reichstag- a German Government building- and Hitler blamed the communists. • He was given emergency power to deal with the situation • He used this power to set up a Dictatorship
VII. Russia, Stalin and USSR • Two column notes/Animal Farm • WWII