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Chapter 6: Semantics…

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  1. Chapter 6: Semantics… … the Study of Meaning NOTES: About exercising: it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally… I’ve tried to match the slides to the order of the textbook this time…

  2. Extra Credit Possibility(Worth up to 2 quiz points) Extra Credit Possibility(Worth up to 2 quiz points)

  3. What is “Truth”? - Pilate- c 33AD • Travel means “to go from one place to another, as by car, train, plane, or ship. • You are too young to travel. You are not old enough to travel. • Dave spent 4 years in Tokyo, Japan. Dave was once in Tokyo, Japan.

  4. Truth & Contradiction So What?? How do peopleuse these? (or misuse them?) • Paraphrase: • Two sentences: the same truth conditions • Entailment • JFK was assassinated  __________ • Contradiction • *The king is a woman • Anomaly • Colorless green ideas sleep furiously

  5. 2 Important Concepts(via vocabulary…) • Ambiguity • Principle of Compositionality The meaning of a sentence comes (mostly) from its constituents and the way they are positioned.

  6. What I meant to say was… What makes this funny? Or if you don’t think it’s funny, what linguistic quality was the author employing in his unsuccessful attempt at humor?

  7. Ambiguity Other Examples? • The man saw the fish with binoculars.

  8. You Try it • Create an ambiguous sentence… • How does the ambiguity in your sentence relate to compositionality, truth, and entailment?

  9. Think About It… What are some benefits & dangers of ambiguity in our communication?

  10. Any Questions… … before we move on?

  11. Cup/Mug (or shades of blue) • What’s the point? • Apply the point to something that matters in your life… • Reading • Writing • Teaching • 2nd language study…

  12. Systematicness of Language Phonology Syntax Lexis Predictable Unpredictable

  13. Word Relationships (Lexis) • Hyponymy • Color – Red, blue, green, etc. • Converseness • Reciprocal relationship • Polysemy & Homonymy • Plain • Bat So What?? How do peopleuse these? (or misuse them?)

  14. Nose Ice Ice Ice Hana (Japanese) Nos(Russian) Fuzzy Concepts (Lexical Semantics) H2O Water Rain

  15. Think About It… How can knowing about word relationships help us study another language or communicate with a non-native speaker of English?

  16. Any Questions… … before we move on?

  17. Pragmatics… Band practice… My house 6 to 8 Band practice… My house 6 to 8 Band practice… My house 6 to 8 Band practice… My house 6 to 8 Thanks for the reminder Thanks for the reminder Thanks for the warning Thanks for the reminder What makes this funny? Or if you don’t think it’s funny, what linguistic quality was the author employing in his unsuccessful attempt at humor?

  18. Types of Meaning • Linguistic • Reference • GWB is the 43rd president • Beware Referential Meaning • Al Gore nearly became the 43rd president • Al Gore nearly became GWB! • Social • Y’all come back now. Y’hear? • Affective • How many times have I asked you to…

  19. Linguistic, Social or Affective? Tina, who has two doctorates, gave me a fascinating overview of Warhol’s art last night. Adjust the sentence below to reflect different L, S, & A meanings

  20. Pragmatics • What’s the message? • “Honey, do we have any fruit…?” • Me sitting making these slides… • Me on the cell phone from the grocery store… • “I’m getting cold…” • My wife in the car while we’re driving… • Me deciding on pie at a Midwestern diner… Other Examples?

  21. Why “Fine”? What makes this funny? Or if you don’t think it’s funny, what linguistic quality was the author employing in his unsuccessful attempt at humor? …why ask? Why not give a ‘real answer’?

  22. Any Questions… … before we move on?

  23. So What?? How do peopleuse these? (or misuse them?) Meaning Categories Find Examples of Each… (see pp 200 – 206) • Tense • Modality • Deixis

  24. Semantic Roles • Verb-Centered • Agent  one doing the action • Patient  one receiving the action • Identify A, & P below (two in each…) • Humpty-Dumpty sat on a wall. • Bo Peep pushed Humpty off the wall • Miss Muffet heard Humpty shatter

  25. Thematic Roles? • Find Two: Based on the caption… • Agent • Theme Rule Governed?? What controls who can do what to whom? Make a sentence that violates thematic constraints…

  26. Themes in other lanaguages • Apache • *My horse kicked me • I allowed myself to be kicked by my horse • German • In diesem hotel sind hunde verboten • In this hotel are dogs forbidden (gloss) • * This hotel forbids dogs What might one thematic constraint be in Apache? What might one thematic constraint be in German?

  27. Think About It… How do thematic roles apply to how we create sentences?

  28. Any Questions…. … before we move on?

  29. Maxims of Conversation Grice, 1975 Four “rules” of conversation that are typically followed in everyday life

  30. Maxim of Conversation #1 • Relevance • Be relevant How does the comic violate the maxim for humorous effect?

  31. Maxim of Conversation #2 • Quantity • Be as informative as required… How does the comic violate the maxim for humorous effect?

  32. Maxim of Conversation #3 • Quality • Truthful, Supportable claims How does the comic violate the maxim for humorous effect?

  33. Maxim of Conversation #4 • Manner • Brief, orderly • Not ambiguous nor obscure How does the comic violate the maxim for humorous effect?

  34. Life-Application • What are some situations you’ve experienced (in real-life or literature) where someone has violated a Maxim of Conversation? • What happened? (was it intentional?) • How was the situation resolved?

  35. Recommended Exercises 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15 Enough of each to get the point