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  1. Chapter 30 Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

  2. Africa Becomes Independent 1. The first independent black African state to emerge out of European colonialism was the British colony of the Gold Coast which became free in 1957. It renamed itself Ghana. 2. Perhaps the most serious problem for the European governments granting independence to the African states was how to deal with the permanent white settlers. Wherever the whites were numerous, European states sought to preserve white privileged status. Thus, for Britain granting independence to black dominated states was fairly easy but more difficult when there was a substantial white population such as in Kenya and Rhodesia. Kenya received independence in 1963 only after a guerrilla war was subdued and the whites were safe. In Southern Rhodesia, whites split from Rhodesia and illegally declared independence from Britain in 1965. A long Civil war lasted until 1980 before the whites surrendered power. The country was renamed Zimbabwe. 3. France divided up its West Africa and Equatorial Africa possessions into thirteen separate governments, thereby creating a French commonwealth. Plebiscites were to be called in each to approve the new arrangement. If this was ratified, the association with France would continue. A negative vote would mean independence. In 1958 Guinea rejected the French offer for commonwealth status and chose independence. Shocked, France withdrew every official and piece of equipment as punishment. France expected Guinea to collapse but it did not. In 1960 Mali joined Guinea in seeking independence. Other French territories followed suit though many retained their close ties with France. 4.Tunisia and Morocco were granted independence by France in 1956. With a sparse European population, the separation was easy. However, this was not the case for Algeria. Not only did it have about one million French speaking Europeans in a total population of eight million but it was France's source for oil. When Muslim nationalism stirred, the Europeans responded and a bloody and violent civil war broke out. Finally, Algeria was granted independence in 1962. 5. Violence also characterized Belgium's withdrawal from the Congo. Having fostered neither development nor education, there was no loyalty to the colonial master. In 1959 riots broke out and with no warning Belgium proclaimed in 1960 the Congo's independence. What followed was a violent tribal conflict and civil war. The new state was christened Zaire (renamedin 1997 the Democratic Republic of Congo). Civil war and political instability has plagued the nation since independence. 6. Like Belgium, Portugal did nothing ta prepare its African states for independence. Facing a guerrilla war, Portugal granted Angola and Mozambique independence in 1975. Independence in Angola brought a civil war with the involvement of the United States, Cuba, and China. Political stability was finally established in 1997. 7. The nation later named Namibia wasoriginally called South West Africa and colonized by Germany in 1884. During World War I it was seized by South Africa. After the war, the territory was mandated to South Africa by terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty. In 1946, South Africa sought to incorporate the territory into its own. The U.N. rejected this but did allow closer association. In 1969, South Africa to extended its own laws, including apartheid, to the land. When the Security Council demanded that the laws be rescinded, South Africa refused. In 1974, a Security Council resolution required a transfer of power. Slowness to act resulted in a war in which various guerrilla organization were supported by Cuba, Angola, and South Africa. Finally, an agreement was made for elections to take place in 1989. The new president, Sam Nujoma, took office in 1990 when Namibia became independent. 8.Throughout the period of African imperialism, only two states managed to remain independent, Liberia (colonized by the United State to send back to Africa freed slaves) and Ethiopia which routed an Italian invasion in 1896. Italy achieved revenge in 1935 with conquest and annexation to Eritrea from 1936 to 1941. Question: 1.How was the British and French approach to independence different? Africa Becomes Independent

  3. Freedom (Uhuru) monument at Dar es-Salaam. Located in capital of Tanzania

  4. The Struggle for Independence (Uhuru) • Britain used indirect rule over its African colonies • France emphasized French culture in training local administrators • Election of African representatives to the National Assembly • Native population generally restricted to unskilled or semiskilled jobs • Only a few native political organizations emerged after World War I • Led by Western-educated African intellectuals • Some areas (South Africa and Algeria) dominated by European settlers • Era of Independence • Pan-Africanism and Nationalism • Organization of African Unity, 1963 • Negritude

  5. Present-Day Africa 1. The post-Cold War era in Africa has seen a resurgence of democracy. In Zambia, mounting domestic pressures fueled by economic difficulties forced President Kenneth Kaunda (1964-91) to move away from his one-party state to multiparty democracy. National elections held in October 1991 brought Kaunda's government to an end. Similarly, in Zaire where the military has had an overwhelming influence, demands for political reforms led to the end of one-party rule in 1990. Unfortunately, political and ethnic tensions have led to violence. In Kenya, a single party state existed from 1964 to 1992 under Jomo Kenyata and Daniel arap Moi who controlled the Kenya African National Union. Although President Moi permitted multiparty elections in 1992, he still arrested those who politically attacked him. 2. When Nigeria became independent in 1960, it was a loose confederation of self-governing states. With some 250 ethnic and linguistic groups, it was only a matter of time until there was trouble. In 1966 rioting broke out and the military seized the government. That same year Muslim Hausas in the north massacred predominantly Christian Ibos who were forced to flee east to the region of Biafra. In 1967 Biafra declared its independence. Civil war ensued for the next three years with Biafra surrendering in 1970. Since the 1970s, the government of Nigeria has been characterized by repeated military coups against the civilian government. 3. In the Horn of Africa, the end of the Cold War also brought decreased foreign aid to desperately poor countries. Ethiopia was proclaimed a communist-socialist state in 1977 following the deposing of Emperor Haile Selassi (1917-74). Rebel activity began in 1991 when the Soviets cut off aid. A separatist guerrilla organization also took control of the province of Eritrea. In 1993, Eritrea's independence was recognized. Order was returned to Ethiopia in 1995 with general elections. The following year, sixty-eight leaders of the former military government were put on trial for genocide and crimes against humanity. The situation was even worse in nearby Somalia, where independence was soon followed by a military coup and close relations with the Soviet Union. In 1977, it supported rebels in Ethiopia. This brought an eight-month war that left the Somali army destroyed. The government fell in January 1991 when the president fled the country. Somalia was left in the hands of clan-based guerrilla groups. Attempts to restore order repeatedly have failed and several cease-fires have collapsed. An attempt by the United States to protect delivery of food to the starving people in 1992-93 resulted in an ambush of American troops and soon after the anarchistic country was abandoned by the Americans. 4. The violence in South Africa centers around race. Apartheid ("separatehood") was formalized in 1948 and was designed to keep the Bantu, Coloured, Asian and white societies separate by posing a number of restrictions on the non-white population. Such practices brought world criticism and racial tensions. Strikes and demonstrations against the government in 1960 culminated in the Sharpeville Massacre where sixty-nine people were killed by a panicky police force. That same year the African National Congress was outlawed. By 1961, the ANC and the Pan-Africanist Congress, both operating underground, turned to the use of sabotage. It was a charge of sabotage in 1964 that brought Nelson Mandela a sentence of life imprisonment. In 1989, F.W. de Klerk became the leader of the Nationalist Party and began rapid reform. He lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela (27 1/2 years in jail). Negotiations between the government and the ANC commenced, resulting in an agreement in 1993 that minority parties could participate in government for five years after the end of white rule. In the meantime, parliament scrapped apartheid laws relating to property ownership and did away with classifying South Africans at birth by race. Elections were held in 1994 with Mandela achieving an overwhelming victory. 5. Difficulties in Algeria began in December 1991 when the first parliamentary elections in the country were won by the militant Islamic fundamentalist party, Islamic Salvation Front. Under pressure from senior army commanders, the electoral process was cancelled. Civil war ensued resulting in at least 60,000 civilians being killed by terrorists. Question: 1. Why has there been a resort to violence in so many of the Present-Day Africa

  6. Political and Economic conditions • Scarce natural resources • “Neocolonialism” • Bribery and corruption • Population growth • Solutions • Shamba • Capitalism • Marxism-Leninism • Undermining community • Border disputes • Regionalism and tribalism • Pan-Islamism

  7. Foreign intervention • South Africa • Nelson Mandela (b. 1918) • Rwanda and Burundi • Continuity and Change in Modern Society • Education • Christianity • Tension between the rural and urban • Change in relationship between men and women • Status of women in urban and rural areas • Tension between tradition and modern African art and music • Modern African literature • Embrace negritude • Glorifies aspects of traditional African society

  8. Traditional African house. Located in Dar es-Salaam,Tanzania

  9. African women in colorful dress. Djibouti, on Red Sea

  10. Israel and Arab Neighbors, 1947-1994 1. After World War II, pressure increased to fulfill the Zionist call for a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine. Delay brought violence, especially the Haganah which had acquired weapons. Unable to keep the situation under control, in early 1947 Britain requested a special session of the U.N. General Assembly to consider the problem. A U.N. report recommended partition to form territory for Jews and Arabs; Jerusalem and Bethlehem to be internationalized; and that Arab and Jewish states become independent only when they sign before October 1, 1948, a ten year pact of economic union. The plan also called for the British mandate to end May 15 and troops evacuated before August 1. The proposal touched off a civil war between the Zionist military organizations and an Arab liberation army augmented by Iraqi Egyptian, and Palestinian Arab units. On May 14, 1948, the establishment of the Jewish state was proclaimed in Tel Aviv. The Arab League refused to recognize Israel and on May 15th war began. The United Nations brought about an armistice between Israel and Egypt in February 1949. Jordan and Syria agreed to an armistice in April. By this time, Israeli forces had captured some of the land assigned to the Arabs while Egypt held the Gaza Strip and Jordan controlled the West Bank. Jordan annexed its territory in 1950. 2. In late October 1956 an Anglo-French-Israeli agreement was signed to attack the Suez Canal which had been nationalized by the Egyptians. Shortly thereafter the allies struck and by November 7 the Sinai as well as Sharm al-Shaykh was occupied by Israel. When world criticism forced Britain and France to surrender the seized canal, Israel refused to give up the Gaza Strip and Sharm al-Shaykh. In March 1957 Israel withdrew from both positions. 4. Syria, fearing an Israeli attack, concluded in May 1967 a mutual defense act with Egypt. Concentration of Egyptian forces east of the canal brought an Israeli surprise attack on June 5. Within six days Israel occupied the Gaza Strip, Sinai east of the Suez Canal, all of Jordan west of the Jordan River including East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. Acease fire was then agreed upon. 5. On October 6, 1973, (Yom Kippur) Egypt and Syria made a surprise attack on Israel but ultimately failed. Disengagement came in January 1974. Five years later as a consequence of the Camp David Accords, the state of war between Israel and Egypt ended and Israel began returning the Sinai to Egypt. 6. Exacerbated by terrorist attack from Lebanon, in June 1982 Israel invaded for the purpose of creating a forty kilometer buffer zone. At the close of 1987, a resistance movement called Intifada was initiated by Palestinian women. 7. The first major breakthrough between Israel and the Palestinians came in 1993 when the Palestinian Liberation Organization and Israel reached an agreement calling for Palestinian autonomy in selected areas of Israel in return for PLO recognition of the legitimacy of the Israeli state. Implementing the agreement has been difficult as radicals from both sides want it to fail. Ultimately, in November 1995 the disagreement cost Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin his life when he was assassinated. Nevertheless, the agreement resulted in limited Palestinian autonomy in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho. 8. A second Palestinian-Israeli agreement in October 1995 gave the Palestinians direct control of six West Bank towns, partial control over Hebron, civil authority over 440 West Bank villages, and executive and legislative authority. The latter is exercised through alegislative council. 9. In October 1994, Israel concluded peace with Jordan. Questions: 1. Why did problems develop between the Arabs and the Jews? 2. What attempts have been made to resolve the problems? Why has success been so elusive? Israel and Arab Neighbors, 1947-1994

  11. The Middle East • Palestine • Zionists • Independence of Israel, May 1948 • Arab-Israeli conflict • Palestinian refugees • Gamal Abdul Nasser (1918-1970) and Pan-Arabism • King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1953 • General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954 • Arab socialism • Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 • Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt • U.S. supports Nasser

  12. Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic,1958 • Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union • UAR lends in 1961 • Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 • Al-Fatah led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks • Arab-Israeli Dispute • 1967 Six-Day War • Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat (1918-1981) • Yom Kippur War, 1973 • Camp David Agreement, 1978 • Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981 • Israel invades southern Lebanon to destroy bases of the PLO • Prince Minister Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995) assassinated, 1995

  13. The Modern Middle East 1. In 1945, the League of Nations mandates over Syria and Lebanon were surrendered by France. Both became independent the following year. 2. Jordan gained independence in 1946 after Britain gave up its mandate. Britain had more difficult problems with Palestine. The Jews demanded that the British permit all survivors of Hitler's death camps be settled in Palestine. This was opposed by the Palestinian Arabs and the newly formed Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen). In 1947 Britain announced its intent to withdraw the following year. The United Nations passed a non--binding resolution in November calling for the partition of Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state. The Jews accepted this, the Arabs did not. When the British mandate ended May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the state of Israel. Arab countries immediately launched an attack. The Jews fought off the Arabs and conquered more territory. About 900,000 Arab refugees fled or were expelled from old Palestine. 3. Egypt had been given its independence in 1922 but the British still retained control over military affairs. In 1952 corrupt, pro-Western King Farouk was driven from Egypt by Colonel Gamel Abdel Nasser. He led Egypt to a middle course in foreign policy. Reacting to the withdrawal of aid from the United States to build the Aswan Dam, Nasser nationalized the Suez Land Company in 1956. Britain, France, and Israel invaded to protect the canal. Pressure from the United States and the Soviet Union forced the invaders to withdraw. Hostilities with Israel continued in 1967 and 1973 with two futile wars but in 1977 President Anwar Sadat soften relations by meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Menachim Begin. This led to negotiations mediated by President Jimmy Carter resulting in a limited peace settlement. Egypt got back the Sinai Peninsula lost in the 1967 war and Israel obtained peace and normal relations with Egypt. In 1981 Sadat was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists. 4.After World War II, Iran openly courted the West. Nevertheless, in 1951 nationalist successfully nationalized a British owned oil company. The resulting boycott of Iranian oil plunged the economy into chaos and forced Muhammed Reza Shah Pahlavi (1941-1979) to flee in 1953. When he was restored (with the help of the CIA), the shah sought to use Iran's oil reserves to build a modern state to ensure his rule. In the process, the government became a corrupt, harsh dictatorship. A rebellion in 1979 drove the shah from power and an Islamic Republic was proclaimed. The new republic caused concern for Iraq which feared Iran might try to incite Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Sunnite leadership. In 1980 Iraq initiated a war against Iran, lasting until 1988. Two years later, Iraq attacked Kuwait and announced its annexation. An international response headed by the United States drove the Iraquis out in early 1991. Question: 1.How has religion been a factor in Middle East politics? The Modern Middle East

  14. Oil Politics and Revolution in Iran • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1990-1980), 1941-1979 • Prime ally of the U.S. in the Middle East • Social and economic reforms • Internal problems • Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1900-1989) • Restore traditional Islamic law • American embassy hostages

  15. Crisis in the Gulf • Iraq • Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979- • War against Iran, 1980 • Iraq sends military forces into Kuwait, 1990 • United Nations response • Politics in the Contemporary Middle East • Monarchy of Saudi Arabia • One party rule • Charismatic rule • Bureaucratic rule • Israel, democratic institutions

  16. Politics of oil • OPEC • Developing economies • Arab socialism • Western capitalism • Population growth • Islamic Revival • Reaction to Western influences • Reaction to secularization • Iranian Revolution

  17. Modern Islam 1. The largest religion in the world is Christianity with nearly two billion followers (Roman Catholics, Protestants, Orthodox, and others). The second largest religion is Islam with 1.1 billion adherents. Sunnites make up 83% of the followers with Shi'ites composing 16%. Although in a worldwide minority, Shi'ites make up 95% of the population in rran (Sunnis are 4%). The nation with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia where 87% of the of the 210 million people are Muslim. The largest Muslim state in terms of territory is Algeria (919,595 square miles). While the Sudan is territorially larger (967,491), its population is only 70% Muslim (Sunni) while that of Algeria is 99% (Sunni). 2. Tearing at the Muslim world are the conflicting forces of secularism and religious, political fundamentalism. Fundamentalist, who call themselves Islamists, wish to create Islamic governments and constitutions based on Islamic law. Without any unified organization, the Islamists condemn rulers of Muslim states where secular reform endangers Muslim practices. The Islamists also promise social reform based on the Quran. Opposition to the Islamists often comes from the military and entrenched establishements. An Islamic revolution in 1979 led to the creation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the Sudan, a military regime in 1992 supported by the National Islamic Front instituted rule by Islamic law. 3. In 1980 war erupted between Iraq and Iran when Iraqui warplanes attacked Iranian airfields and a refinery. While there are many causes for the war, one element is the treatment of Shi'ite Muslims by the Sunni dominated Iraq government. The war ended when devastated Iran accepted a U.N. brokered cease fire in 1988. Having created a battle-hardened army, President Hussein turned it against neighboring Kuwait in 1990 after claiming it had flooded the world market with oil thereby driving down prices. In 1991, U.N. forces attacked Iraqui occupied Kuwait and drove out the Iraqi army. 4. The great modernizer of Turkey was Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk, who secularized the country. In 1993 Tansu Çiller became prime minister making Turkey the first Islamic Middle Eastern country with a woman in that position. 5. As Britain began to divest itself of empire, it recognized the religious difficulties of India where a substantial Muslim population lived in the northwest and northeast. In 1946, Britain agreed to the formation of Pakistan as a separate state. Civil war broke out in 1970 when East Pakistanis stopped paying taxes. The war ended in 1971 with the independence of Bangladesh proclaimed. In 1988, Benazir Bhutto became the first woman in the modern Islamic world to be voted into the office of prime minister. 6. In Algeria where the population is 99% Sunni Muslim, civil war erupted following the canceling of the 1991 elections won by the Islamic fundamentalist party Islamic Salvation Front. Over 60,000 people have been massacred by fundamentalist terrorist. 7. Egypt is 94%Muslim in religion. A leader in the wars against Israel, under the guidance of Anwar Sadat, it made a formal peace in March 1979. The Arab states reacted with fury -- only Morocco, Tunsia, Sudan, and Oman approved. Fundamentalist vowed revenge and on October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated by extremist Muslim soldiers at a parade in Cairo. Sadat's successor, Hosni Mubarak continues to deal with the fundamentalists. 8. Disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted in several Muslim republics withdrawing from the Soviet state: Azerbaijan (87% Muslim), Turkmenistan (35% Muslim), Kirgizatan (70% Muslim), and Tajikistan (80% Muslim). Georgia (11% Muslim) also withdrew. Russia continues to have problems with the Muslim dominated state of Chechinya. Questions: 1. Why is it so difficult for Muslim states to operate in agreement? 2. Why have relations between Iran and Iraq been so strained? 3. What was the impact on the Muslim and non-Muslim world of the assassination of Anwar Sadat? Modern Islam, 1998

  18. Middle Eastern Societies and Women’s Rights • Traditional role of women in Islamic societies • Modernist views • Impact of the Iranian Revolution • Literature and Art in the Middle East • New themes • Historical traditions • Folklore • Everyday life • National issues • Israeli art