I. African Nationalism grew after WWII • Page 672- Map • Pan African Movement- which promoted cultural unity of people of African Heritage • Due to their participation in WWII, Africans were no longer satisfied to remain under European control
II. Independence • Ghana- civil disobedience led by Nkrumah • Kenya- Mau Mau uprising • Zimbabwe- Creation of new state, Guerrilla Warfare • Guinea- Refuse French Aid, turn to Soviets • Belgian Congo (Zaire) Violent protests, Military state under Mobutu • South Africa- Apartheid-segregation caused protests at home and abroad
III. Africa Since Independence • Economic Problems • A single crop or resource leads to economic instability • Price drops and your whole economy fails. Ex. Ghana and cocoa • Results are debt and rising prices of goods • Political Problems • New countries lack leadership which often results in military takeoverand dictatorships. Ex. Ghana and Nkrumah • Cold War Battleground. Ex. Ethiopia and Somalia • Environmental and Social Problems • Population Growth • Desertification • Disease—HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus
IV. Nationalism in the Middle East and North Africa • Britain and France controlled much of the Middle East after WWII • Britain had troops and control in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Palestine.
V. Britain and Palestine • Turn the problem of a Jewish state over to the UN • UN agreed to divide Palestine into two states—one Arab and one Jewish • In 1948, Israel declared its Independence as a Jewish State • As soon as Britain withdrew, Arabs attacked Israel and Israel won.
VI. Britain and Egypt • Gamal Nasser took over in Egypt • Nasser announces a deal with Czech (Soviet Union) • This upsets US and Britain and they agree to help finance the Aswan High Dam • Nasser then agrees to the US/British Aid, but it is revoked • Nasser then nationalizes the Suez Canal and uses money from that to pay for the Dam Project • Britain and France conspire with Israel to overthrow Nasser • The attempt is unsuccessful and Nasser becomes extremely popular in the Arab world for his defeat of European Imperialism
VII. Britain and Iran • In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddeq became Iran’s Prime Minister. • He moved to nationalize the oil industry. • Britain was outraged and organized a boycott of Iranian oil. • The US was worried that Iran would side with the Soviets • In 1953 the CIA organized a coup and overthrew Mosaddeq and placed the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in charge
VIII. Oil in Persian Gulf and North Africa • Oil Producing countries learned through the Iran boycott that individually oil producers had little power • As a group, they could control the price of oil—OPEC was formed (organization of petroleum exporting countries) • OPEC had power and they used it to cut off shipments to the US as punishment for supporting Israel. Oil prices rose from $3 to $12 per barrel
IX. Iran • Due to The Shah’s close ties with the West, many opposed him • Many who opposed him were Muslim and Conservative Islamic leaders led by the Ayatollah Khomeini opposed the Shah’s modernization efforts • Unable to contain the unrest, the Shah left Iran and the Ayatollah kept power until his death in 1989
X. Iraq • Saddam Hussein helped the Ba’ath party seize power in Iraq in 1968 • Saddam removed anyone who threatened him as a leader • When the Kurds-a minority group- asked for self government, he attempted genocide using chemical weapons
XI. Desert Storm • In 1990, Saddam invaded Kuwait claiming they were pumping Iraqi oil • Iraq’s army took Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia • World opinion turned on Saddam and a coalition force called Desert Shield was sent to Saudi Arabia to be ready if Saddam did not withdraw by the set deadline • When the deadline passed, Desert Shield turned to Desert Storm and Iraqi forces were forced out of Kuwait • Saddam stayed in power but refused UN weapons inspectors • As a result, the US invaded Iraq in 2003 and Saddam was caught, tried and hung