Pollution. OCR Environmental Biology A2 Options module. Introduction to Pollution. Environmental pollution results from human activities causing the release of substances that should not be there; or build up of substances to unnatural or dangerous levels.
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OCR Environmental Biology
A2 Options module
On a global scale, evaporation exceeds precipitation over the oceans. This results in a net movement of water vapour (carried by winds) over the land.
The table below shows the BOD of some organic pollutants, the figures are for before the pollutants enter a river (once in a river the pollutant will become diluted).
A + B = physical and chemical changes
C = changes in micro- organisms
D = changes in larger animals
(based on Hynes, 1960)
1. Improved engine designs
2. Use of low sulphur and cleansed fuel
Higher zones were found in rural areas, where the air contains the least pollutants.
Handout – Air Quality and Lichens
Cl• + O3 ClO• + O2
ClO• + O Cl• + O2
Source or origin
Water vapour (H2O)
Evaporation and transpiration
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Combustion of fossil fuels, wood
Refrigerators, aerosol sprays
Cattle, rice fields, bogs and rubbish tips
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Secondary pollutant from car exhausts
Due to human activity CO2 and CH4 are increasing in abundance. This may be causing global warming by enhancing the natural greenhouse effect of the atmosphere.
Ozone depletion was evident
Uncertainty about the actual consequences of global warming.
Technology existed to replace CFC’s with less damaging products
Developed world is reliant on fossil fuels, no easy alternative energy source.
- Developed countries need to make the major contribution to lowering greenhouse gas emissions.Montreal vs. Kyoto Protocol