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EMMANUEL KANT

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  1. EMMANUEL KANT KNOWLEDGE AND MEANING ARE CONSTRUCTED BY THE INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM INDIVIDUALS INTERPRET SENSORY INFORMATION AND CONSTRUCT PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL MEANING IT IS THE MEANING OF OUR EXPERIENCES, AND NOT THE ONTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE OBJECTS, WHICH CONSTITUTES REALITY

  2. “A STUDENT WHO ACHIEVES KNOWLEDGE THROUGH FREE INVESTIGATION AND SPONTANEOUS EFFORT WILL BE ABLE TO RETAIN THAT KNOWLEDGE AND WILL HAVE ACQUIRED A METHODOLOGY THAT CAN SERVE FOR A LIFETIME.” JEAN PIAGET COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTALTHEORY

  3. “The central fact about psychology is the fact of mediation.” Lev Vygotsky

  4. BEHAVIOR Cognitive Development Individual as active agent -emphasis on interpretation of information and on construction of meaning Biological Factors Environmental Factors MEDIATING MECHANISMS Adaptation Disequilibrium Developmental stages COGNITIVE CONFLICT ACTIVE AGENCY

  5. WHAT CRITICAL ELEMENTS SEEM TO BE DE-EMPHASIZED IN PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT?


  6. 1. HUMAN LEARNING CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD INDEPENDENT OF THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FORCES THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUALS** 2. CRITICAL ROLE OF LANGUAGE 3. IMPORTANCE OF ASSISTED LEARNING

  7. The development of mind is the interweaving of biological development of the human body and the appropriation of the cultural/ideal/material heritage which exists in the present to coordinate people with each other and with the physical world. Lev Vygotsky from: Beyond the Individual-Social Antimony in Discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky, by Michael Cole and James Wertsch

  8. LEV VYGOTSKY SOCIAL-HISTORICAL THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INTERACTIONS ARE CRITICAL TO LEARNING • INDIVIDUALS CREATE PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS TO LEARN AND TO MASTER THEIR BEHAVIOR

  9. Biological Factors Environmental Factors with emphasis on Sociocultural factors BEHAVIOR Development Mediating mechanisms Social Process Instruction (Zone of Proximal Development) Cultural influences - Tools and signs - Cultural artifacts - Language

  10. THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT “ . . . is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” Lev Vygotsky, 1935

  11. ZPD POTENTIAL LEVEL LEARNING ACTUAL LEVEL INSTRUCTION

  12. ZPD POTENTIAL LEVEL ACTUAL LEVEL

  13. BEHAVIOR Development Biological Factors Environmental Factors with emphasis on Sociocultural factors Mediating mechanisms Social Process Instruction (Zone of Proximal Development) Cultural influences - Tools and signs SOCIAL (Cultural) MEDIATION

  14. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCESBETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL INTERACTION Adult-child interaction INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTION Active agency . . . but see Cole and Wertsch’s Beyond the Individual-Social Antimony in Discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky

  15. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCESBETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 2. ROLE OF LANGUAGE AND PRIVATE SPEECH LANGUAGE CRITICAL - EGOCENTRIC SPEECH BECOMES THOUGHT THAT IS SELF-REGULATING COGNITION CRITICAL -EGOCENTRIC SPEECH DISAPPEARS AS SOCIAL SPEECH DEVELOPS COGNITION MEDIATES LANGUAGE ONCE LANGUAGE DEVELOPS, COGNITION IS LANGUAGE

  16. HOW CAN I KNOW WHAT I THINK UNLESS I HEAR WHAT I SAY? Dean Acheson

  17. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCESBETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 3. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN BEST? • SOCIAL INTERACTION • INSTRUCTION DEPENDENT • ASSISTED LEARNING (ZPD) • SCAFFOLDING • COGNITIVE SELF-INSTRUCTION - guided by inner speech • INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTION • STAGE DEPENDENT • SELF-DIRECTED, SELF-INITIATED** • EXPERIMENTATION • INDEPENDENT MASTERY • EXPLORATION, DISCOVERY INTERNAL SE LF-REGULATION

  18. CONCEPTUAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 1. PARADIGMATIC CONSISTENCY SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISMwith an ever so slight lean toward nurture COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISMwith an ever so slight lean toward nature

  19. CONCEPTUAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 2. FOUNDATION OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOCULTURAL MEDIATION HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS IS AN INTERMINGLING OF BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS -“THE NATURAL AND THE CULTURAL” - THAT FORM A SINGLE LINE OF SOCIOBIOLOGICAL FORMATION OF PERSONALITY GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IS AN INTERACTION BETWEEN BIOLOGYANDENVIRONMENT PRIMARILY MEDIATED BY AN INDIVIDUAL’S ACTIVE CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING

  20. CONCEPTUAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN VYGOTSKY PIAGET and 3. SOCIALINFLUENCE ON LEARNING THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSISTED LEARNING TO REACH THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE DURING THE PROCESS OF EQUILIBRATION DeVries, R. (1997). Piaget’s Social Theory, Educational Researcher, 26(2), 4-17. Link to detail

  21. Piaget’s Cognitive Periods and Approximate Ages Table 2.2 1.The Sensorimotor Period-Birth to 18-24 months 2.The Preoperational Period-2 to 7 years 3.The Concrete Operational Period-7 to 11 years 4.The Formal Operational Period-over 11 years 3

  22. Piaget on Language and ThoughtTable 2.4 Outstanding Language Equivalent Period (age in years) Characteristics Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational (2-7) Concrete Operational (7-11) Formal Operational (over 11) 1. Egocentrism 2. Organization of reality by sensory and motor abilities 1. Increasing symbolic activity 2. Beginnings of representation 1. Reversibility 2. Conservation 3. Seriation 4. Classification 1. Development of logico- mathematical structures 2. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Language absent until final months of period 1. Egocentric speech 2. Socialized speech 1. Beginnings of verbal understanding 2. Understanding related to concrete objects 1. Language freed from the concrete 2. Verbal ability to express the possible 4

  23. Vygotsky’s Theory-Basics • Concept of development • The social origin of mind • Speech and development 5

  24. Vygotsky and Stages of Language Development • Preintellectual speech • Naive psychology • Egocentric speech • Inner speech 6

  25. Key Differences Between Piaget and VygotskyTable 2.5 Piaget Vygotsky Perspective Basic psychological mechanism Language Learning Problem solving Individual child constructs view of world by forming cognitive structures -“the little scientist” Equilibration-child acts to regain equilib- rium between current level of cognitive structures and external stimuli Emerges as cognitive structures develop Assimilation and accommodation lead to equilibration Child independently searches for data needed to change cognitive structures, thus enabling child to reach solution Child’s cognitive development progresses by social interactions with others (“social origins of mind”) Social interaction, which encourages devel- opment through the guidance of skillful adults Language begins as preintellectual speech and gradually develops into a sophisticated form of inner speech; one of the main forces responsible for cognitive develop- ment Learning results from the interaction of two processes; biological elementary processes (such as brain development), plus sociocultural interactions Two aspects of problem solving: 1. Key role of speech to guide “planful” behavior; 2. Joint efforts with others 7