Background Info • A Prussian philosopher during the 18th century • Born in Konigsberg, in 1724 • He was considered on the last influential philosophers of the classic period called the theory of knowledge • Published important works on science, religion, law and history • Best know for his theory of transcendental idealism • Kant also pointed out the cause of the diminution of the Earths rotational speed; but it went unnoticed until 1840 • He was also a professor at the university of Konigsberg Immanuel Kant
Kant’s Famous Works • The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. • The Critique of Practical Reason • Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View • Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason • Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/kant.htm great back-round on works
Transcendentalism and Idealism • Transcendentalism- any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism) • The empirical is knowledge derived from experience or experiment • Idealism- the tendency to represent things in their ideal forms, rather than as they are (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/idealism) Ex)Trey can not define his shirt as it truly is only as he perceives it because that’s all he can see of it, he can never truly know how it is, only how he perceives it to be.
Theory of Transcendental Idealism • Transcendental Idealism- the human experience of things is similar to the way they appear to us — implying a fundamentally subject-based component, rather than being an activity that directly comprehends the things as they are in and of themselves.
8 cross steps to transcendentalism • (1) Transcendental Idealism of Intuitions and Phenomena.— • That intuitions and phenomena are nothing beyond experience. • (2) Empirical Idealism of Things-in-themselves.—That things in- • themselves are nothing in experience • (3) Transcendental Realism of Things-in-themselves. — That • things-in-themselves are real beyond experience. • (4) Empirical Realism of Intuitions and Phenomena. — That • intuitions and phenomena are real in experience. • The four rejected by Kant are the following:— • (5) Transcendental Realism of Intuitions and Phenomena.— • That intuitions and phenomena are real beyond experience. • (6) Empirical Realism of Things-in-themselves.—That things in- • themselves are real in experience. • (7) Transcendental Idealism of Things-in-themselves. — That • things-in-them6elves are nothing beyond experience. • (8) Empirical Idealism of Intuitions and Phenomena.—That • intuitions and phenomena are nothing in experience (i.e. • have not objective reality)
Work Cited Page • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Kant • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/idealism • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendental_idealism • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism • http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/ • http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/kant.htm