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Who Will Survive?. Copy the chart below into your spiral. Describe (in complete sentences) the environment of the M&M’s. What color of M&Ms would be more common in the “population” if we allowed them to divide and we continued to prey on them?

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Who will survive
Who Will Survive?

Copy the chart below into your spiral.

  • Describe (in complete sentences) the environment of the M&M’s.

  • What color of M&Ms would be more common in the “population” if we allowed them to divide and we continued to prey on them?

  • Say the environment was candy corn instead of chocolate chips.. What would we predict to occur with our M&M population?


Chapter 15 evolution

Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asfVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

Chapter 15 – Evolution


Summarize natural selection
Summarize Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asfnatural selection.

  • There are variations within a species.

  • More offspring are produced than can survive.

  • They compete for limited resources.

  • Those with the best genetic variations survive to reproduce and pass on those genes to their offspring.

  • Over time, the most favorable traits spread in that population.


Charles darwin father of evolution
Charles DarwinVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asfFather of Evolution

  • Studied the Galapagos Island finches, tortoises, and iguanas.

  • Observed: Enormous number of species live on Earth

  • Species: interbreed organisms that can produce healthy, fertileoffspring


  • Darwin s 5 year voyage on the beagle
    Darwin’s 5 year voyage on the Beagle…Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf


    Who will survive

    Adapted to eating fruits and seedsVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    Adapted to eating cacti


    Darwin s conclusions
    Darwin’s Conclusions:Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    • Struggle for Existence: organisms compete for resources (winners and losers)

      • food, water, and space

    • Not everyone can survive!

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlhLOWTnVoQ

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vo3INoJZLA


    Variation
    VariationVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    • Physical differences among the same species due to their environment or mutation

    • CAN interbreed.

    • Examples – Rabbits – varying fur colors (white, black, brown, etc). Different color- same species.


    Variation1
    Variation Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf


    Biodiversity
    BiodiversityVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    • A variety of organisms inhabiting an area.

    • Examples – All trees, plants, squirrels, birds, insects, etc. that live in a city park.


    Natural selection example
    Natural Selection ExampleVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    • Which rabbit has a better chance of surviving in the North Pole? Why?


    Natural selection example1
    Natural Selection ExampleVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    Oh, snap, I just found dinner.

    Gosh darn it, no rabbits here.


    Who will survive

    All the brown rabbits dieVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf

    Only one white rabbit dies


    White rabbits have babies
    White rabbits have babiesVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf


    Now we have all white rabbits
    Now we have ALL white rabbits!Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf


    Now assume only fat rabbits can survive the cold
    Now assume only fat rabbits can survive the coldVideos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asf


    Now we have all fat white rabbits
    Now we have all Videos\Islands_of_Theory___Charles_Darwin_and_Why_Evolution_Occurs_.asffat white rabbits


    We can say that the rabbits evolved into fat white rabbits the process is called evolution
    - We can say that the rabbits evolved into fat white rabbits.- The process is called evolution.


    Darwin s conclusions1
    Darwin’s Conclusions: rabbits.

    2. Survival of the Fittest: (AKA- Natural Selection)

    • Individuals that are genetically suited to their environment will be more likely to survive and reproduce

    • Survivors have better genes for that environment and therefore transfer that trait to their offspring for better survival and reproduction



    Fitness
    Fitness rabbits.

    • Fitness- The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce


    Who will survive
    NOTE! rabbits.

    The population, NOT the individual, changes as a result of evolution.


    Stop pair share
    Stop, Pair, Share rabbits.

    • Describe the an environment this moth population was taken from.

    • Why do we see more dark moths in generation 3 than generation 1?


    Who will survive

    This species changed and adapted to its environment over time

    Survives the best, therefore make more babies, therefore more giraffes with longer necks

    Die off

    Live a little longer, but eventually Die off


    Figure 22 12 evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations
    Figure 22.12 Evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations

    Over several generations, the insects would become

    resistant to the pesticides.


    Darwin s conclusions2
    Darwin’s Conclusions: populations

    3. Descent with modification –

    • All species evolved from ancestors with changes, but look similar to ancestors

      • implies species have a common descent



    Who will survive

    • Adaptation populations – (think advantage)

      • Any inheritable trait that increases the chances of survival and reproduction

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R5QxUR-mZVM

    • Niche: place and role of each organism in the environment

      • where organisms live, what they eat, their predators, and biotic conditions


    Adaptation
    Adaptation populations

    • Mimicry : An organism copies the appearance of another species.


    Mimicry
    MIMICRY populations


    Who will survive

    Viceroy populations – mimics the monarch to avoid being eaten

    Monarch – tastes bad to birds


    Who will survive

    Milk Snake populations

    Coral Snake


    Who will survive

    Camouflage populations: structural adaptation that enables an organism to blend in with its surroundings.


    Camouflage
    CAMOUFLAGE populations


    Behavior
    Behavior populations

    • Definition – way an organism reacts to changes in its environment.

    • Examples – Geckos change color, skunks spray scent, and porcupines use quills for protection.

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gAxbxxmYZ8


    Plant adaptations
    Plant Adaptations populations

    • Broad leaf in low sunlight

    • Needle like leaves in high sunlight


    Plant adaptations1
    Plant Adaptations populations

    • Taproots for deep ground water

    • Fibrous roots for surface water


    Plant adaptations2
    Plant Adaptations populations

    • Seed dispersal (birds, burrs, twirrly birds, ground droppings-acorns)


    Who will survive


    Natural selection speciation

    Natural Selection - populationsSpeciation


    Speciation
    Speciation populations

    • Definition – Creation of new species from one common ancestor.

    • These new species CANNOT interbreed.

    • Examples – Tortoises and finches (birds) on each of the Galapagos Islands.


    3 types of speciation

    3 types of Speciation populations

    Creation of a new species from one common ancestor.


    Speciation1
    Speciation populations

    • Creation of new species from one species

    • THESE NEW ORGANISMS CANNOT INTERBREED

      (CAN’T MAKE FERTILE BABIES!!)


    1 behavioral isolation
    1. Behavioral Isolation populations

    • Differences in behavior keep organisms from breeding.

      • Differences in courtship rituals

      • Difference in song


    2 geographic isolation
    2. Geographic Isolation populations

    • Separated by geographic barriers

      • Rivers

      • Mountains

      • Water

      • Roads

    • Genetic changes in one

      group do not get passed on

      to the other group


    3 temporal isolation
    3. Temporal Isolation populations

    • Different times of reproduction

      Pollination /flowering

      mating seasons


    Who will survive

    • Tigon populations a hybridization of a Male tiger and female lioness

    • Liger is a hybrid cross between a male Lion and a female tigress


    What about ligers and tiglons
    What about Ligers and Tiglons?? populations

    No, humans did not create a new species.

    A liger and another Liger can not mate – they cannot have offspring – therefore a liger is not a new species.



    Think pair share
    Think, Pair, Share populations

    Imagine you are the teacher grading evolution journals. All of the journals are for the same journal question. You, of course, made clear to the students that they are to work separately, and that they are not to copy each other's work. As you start reading, you realize that 10 consecutive words were identical between two of the journals.


    Think pair share1
    Think, Pair, Share populations

    1.What might this suggest? Would you be 100% sure?

    2. What if 30 consecutive words were the same?


    Think pair share2
    Think, Pair, Share populations

    As you read more closely, you realize that all the punctuation marks, grammar mistakes and spelling errors also match exactly. In fact, 98% of papers are exactly alike.


    Think pair share3
    Think, Pair, Share populations

    3. Would this new realization make you more certain? Why or why not?

    4. Let’s pretend that the 98% similarity is not in journal entries, but rather, the DNA between 2 different species of organisms. How might the similarity in DNA be evidence in evolution?


    1 fossils
    1) Fossils populations

    • Found in different layers, which represents life forms at different times

    • Show when organisms became extinct and how they have changed over time

    • Certain fossils are only found in certain layers


    Who will survive

    Look at V and III. populations

    More modern forms of life have evolved from earlier life forms.

    Complexity


    2 geographic distribution
    2) Geographic Distribution populations

    • Populations of the same species adapt to different geographic environments and change over time (descent with modification)


    Geographic distribution of living species
    Geographic Distribution of Living Species populations

    Beaver

    Beaver

    Muskrat

    Beaver andMuskrat

    Coypu

    Capybara

    Coypu andCapybara

    NORTH AMERICA

    Muskrat

    SOUTH AMERICA

    Capybara

    Coypu


    3 similarities in embryology
    3) Similarities in Embryology populations

    • Vertebrates go through similar early stages of development where the embryonic cells develop in similar patterns to produce common tissues and organs of all vertebrates

    • Similar embryology also suggests similar genes


    Who will survive

    Fish Salamander Turtle Chick Rabbit Human


    4 homologous body structure
    4) Homologous Body Structure populations

    • Different mature body parts that are similar in structure but different in function

    • ***Four limbs of all vertebrates suggests they descended from common ancestors


    Who will survive

    The fact that all these animals have the same bones suggests that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Homologous body structures
    Homologous Body Structures that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    Turtle

    Alligator

    Bird

    Mammal

    Ancient lobe-finned fish

    **The color coordination of the bones indicate that they came from the same embryonic tissue; therefore, they are homologous.


    Vestigial organs
    Vestigial Organs that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Structures that are useless or reduced in size of one organism but are homologous and useful to another organism

    • Examples:

      • Tailbone in humans

      • Femur bone in whales and snakes


    Vestigial organs1
    Vestigial Organs that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    Femurs are used to walk—it is the largest leg bone in humans.

    Whales have femurs, yet they cannot walk.

    This is an example of a vestigial structure.


    5 dna sequences
    5) DNA Sequences that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Similar base pair sequences in DNA can link similar organisms in evolutionary descent

      • Therefore, we can also determine amino acid sequences, too


    More than anything else an organism dna is the most accurate at determining how close species are
    More than anything else, an organism that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments. DNA is the most accurate at determining how close species are.

    Which species is the unknown most closely related to?


    How does evolution happen

    How does evolution happen? that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    What is evolution
    What that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments. is evolution?

    • Evolution is change over time.

      • Organisms change and adapt to their environments over millions of years.

        What must change in order for an organism’s species to change and adapt over time?

    • What would happen to an organism’s species if it didn’t adapt and evolve?


    Evolution in genetic terms
    Evolution in Genetic terms that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Any change (mutation) in the allele contribution from each parent that is passed down through generations

    N = long neck

    n = short neck

    n

    +

    N


    Natural selection
    Natural Selection that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Survival of the fittest!

    • Natural selection is an example of the major mechanism by which evolution occurs.

    • The organism that has the best genes (the best adapted) for that environment will go on to survive and reproduce successfully.


    Ecological succession
    Ecological succession that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Gradual change in the growth of plants in an ecosystem

    • These changes in the environment over time lead to changes (evolution) in the organisms that inhabit that area.

    • Env. Change organism changeevolutiongenetic change/mutation


    Bird beak lab
    Bird Beak Lab that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Hungry hungry birds
    Hungry, Hungry…Birds! that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Expectations:

      • Anyone who is not responsible enough to maintain safe behavior at all times will no longer participate in the activity and will become an observer.

      • Today’s grade will be half from participation and half from your Exit Ticket

      • Take 1 minute and tape/glue in the tables under your Do-Now


    The rules
    The Rules that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Each students will be given a spoon, fork, knife, binder clip, or straw

    • You are now a very hungry bird. The tool you are given is your “beak”. You can only use your beak to pick up food.

    • The cup is your stomach. It must remain upright at all times.

    • Food must be picked up one at a time.

    • When time is called, everyone must immediately stand up and not “eat” anything else!


    Trial 1 rice ants
    Trial 1- Rice (Ants) that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Trial 2 lentils lady bugs
    Trial 2- Lentils (Lady Bugs) that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Trial 3 marshmallows roly poly
    Trial 3- Marshmallows ( that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments. Roly Poly)


    Trial 4 macaroni worms
    Trial 4- Macaroni (Worms) that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Trial 5 mixed environment
    Trial 5- Mixed Environment that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.


    Analysis results in spiral
    Analysis/Results (in spiral) that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • In this experiment, what is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable? (Excluding trial 5)

    • Explain why it is better to have the data from the entire class averaged together when assessing results, rather than using only your own data.


    Cladogram a k a evolutionary or phylogenic trees
    Cladogram that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments. a.k.a. evolutionary or phylogenic trees

    • Cladogram= represents the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

    • Links organisms with common ancestors

    • Shows evolutionary relationships


    Classification
    Classification that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • Remember Linnaeus?

      • He developed the taxonomic categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

    • We use this same concept of classification, but simply represent it in a different way.


    Cladogram
    Cladogram that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • The tips of the tree represent groups of descendent taxa (often new species)

    • The nodes (or points where the lines come together) on the tree represent the common ancestors of those descendents


    Example cladogram
    Example Cladogram that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    • All life on earth is related, and can be represented in a single tree.

    • What do the colored circles represent?


    Who will survive

    The most recent ancestor of I and C is: that at one time, they arose from the same common ancestor, and then, over time, adapted to their different environments.

    a. G b. H c. A d. J