Scarlet Fever By Fernando PuertasRogelio Melendez Omar Amaya
Scarlet Fever • Infectious illness caused by a group A streptococcus (GAS) bacterium that affects the lower respiratory system • Develops from strep throat • Also known as "scarlatina"
Etiology • Agent: Streptococcus pyogenes • Gram staining: positive (+) • Morphology: chained cocci (circles) • Endospores: none • Toxins • Streptolysin O • Streptolysin S • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (and C) • aerobic • non-motile
Epidemiology • Outbreak: • Most recent was on 2008-2009 • Lasted a period of 42 weeks • Reported almost 400 cases by the Health Protection Agency • Most commonly seen on: • 5-12 y/o children • late winter • early summer
Transmission • Direct contact with mucus from nose • Fluid from nose • Infected saliva
Clinical Manifestation/Symptoms • Begins with a rash that shows red bumps • The rash lasts about 2-7 days • After the rash is gone the skin on the tip of the fingers and toes peel. • A flush face with a pale area around the face. • A red and sore throat that can have white or yellow patches . • Fevers of 101 degrees or higher. • Swollen glands in the neck.
Diagnostics • Check for the rash • Swab the back of the throat • Check the tongue and tonsils
Treatment • Use of antibiotics such as: • Penicillin • Erythromycin • Ibuprofen for symptom relief • Avoid the use aspirin in children younger than 16
Prevention • Wash your hands often and • Avoid sharing • eating utensils • Linens • Towels • other personal items. • There is no vaccine to prevent strep throat or scarlet fever. • Children with scarlet fever or strep throat should stay home at least for 24 hours after starting antibiotics.
Citations • http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/scarlet_fever.html • http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/scarletfever_g.htm • http://scienceblogs.com/aetiology/2011/07/06/scarlet-fever-in-hong-kong/ • http://www.cdc.gov/features/scarletfever/ • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1146944/Cases-scarlet-fever-reach-highest-level-decade.html • http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/s/scarlet_fever/stats.htm