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Orchids of Ohio

Orchids of Ohio

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Orchids of Ohio

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  1. Orchidsof Ohio Blair (1909) vs. Today Selected Ohio Species & Their Distribution LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 3.1 Dr. Donald P. Althoff

  2. Kate Blair - 1909 • Published “The Orchids of Ohio” in TheOhio Naturalist 10(2):24-35 • Noted 21 genera and 37 species for Ohio…and noted “…two or three others that are doubtful” (p24) • “…peculiar ___________ for insect pollinations” (p24) • “…some of the Cypripediums are known to be ____________ to the touch.” (p24) • Paper include key and counties found in Ohio

  3. Blair (1909) vs. Recent Taxonomy • Compiled list of Ohio orchards (see handout) • USDA site indicates all ____ species Blair listed for Ohio currently still listed for Ohio • ____ out of the ___ (65%) now have different scientific name (either genus, species, or both) • ____ out of the ___ (68%) are listed as being present in SE Ohio (USDA distribution maps)

  4. Some Orchid Characteristics • simple leaves with parallel veins common • leaves often ovate, lanceolate, or orbicular • __________ • _______flowers or…..________ or ___________ inflorescence

  5. Orchid terminology • _________ vs. orchids • __________ vs. lady’s • fringed vs. _____________ orchids • _____ – modified petal

  6. Modified “lip” = _________ orchids Ragged fringed orchis (green fringed orchis) Smaller purple fringed orchis

  7. _____________________ Platantheraciliaris– USDA Habenariaciliaris– N & P

  8. yellow fringed orchid Modified “lip”

  9. ______________________ Platantherablephariglottis– USDA Habenariablephariglottis– N & P

  10. white fringed orchid Modified “lip”

  11. _______________________ Platantherapsycodes– USDA Habenariapyscodes– N & P

  12. small purple fringed orchid Modified “lip”

  13. __________________= ragged orchid Platantheralacera– USDA Habenarialacera– N & P

  14. green fringed orchid = ragged orchid Modified “lip”

  15. ____________________orchid Platantheraleucophaea– USDA Habenarialeucophaea– N & P

  16. prairie white fringed orchid Modified “lip”

  17. purple _______________ orchid Platantheraperamonea– USDA Habenariaperamonea– N & P

  18. purple fringeless orchid Modified “lip”

  19. ____________________“lip” • Pink lady’s slipper = moccasin mouth • Yellow lady’s slipper • Showy lady’s slipper • Small yellow lady’s slipper • Rose pogonia = snakemouth = snakemouth orchid • Nodding pogonia = three-birds • Arethusa = dragon’s mouth

  20. Modified “lip” = crested or pouched lip Yellow Lady’s Slipper Rose Pogonia = Snakemouth

  21. nodding pogonia = _____________ Triphoratrianthophora

  22. arethusa = _______________ Artethusabulbosa ______________only –offer __________yet bee-pollinated

  23. Other variations/oddities • Grass pink = calopogon • Hooded ladies’ tresses, nodding ladies’ tresses, etc. – __________________ • Coralroots (early, late, large, Wister’s) – ________, _____________, depend on _______________ in their roots to obtain nutrients (saprophytic plants)

  24. ___________= calopogon Calopogontuberosus– USDA Calopogonpuchellus– P & N Cluster of ______ flowers

  25. Modified “lip” that is __________ grass pink

  26. _________ ladies’ tresses Spiranthesromanzoffiana

  27. ___________ ladies’ tresses Spiranthescernua Bogs, meadows, _______________ flower spike Clear Creek Metro Park

  28. “lip” comparisons (curve)flower spike not one-sided Slender ladies‘ tresses Nodding ladies‘ tresses

  29. _____________ 1 Corallorhizamaculata- large Corallorhizawisteriana – Wister’s Corallorhizaodontorhiza – late/ autumn/small-flowered stems ____________ or _______________ 2 3 2 3 1

  30. Coral roots Large, summer, spotted autumn Wister’s

  31. Charles Darwin • Published _______________________in 1862 (Origin of Species in 1859 for first edition, but had 6 editions overall (last in 1872—the “final” short title) • Described complex mechanisms (i.e., co-evolving with insects) to achieve cross-pollination • Used orchids to support theory of evolution: “In my examination of Orchids, hardly any fact has so much struck me as the endless __________ _____________...for gaining the very same end, namely, the fertilisation of one flower by the pollen of another.”

  32. #1 in Ohio _________________________ Goodyerapubescans