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Energy Conservation on Main Street

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  1. Dr Brian DealBuilding Research CouncilSchool of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Energy Conservation on Main Street

  2. Overview • Why is Energy an important issue? • Main Street Programs and Strategies

  3. Smart Energy?

  4. Energy • World Energy Consumption • United States, Russia, China, Japan, and Germany consumed half of the world's energy in 1997. • United States, China, Russia, Japan, and India were responsible for half of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in 1997. • Asia recorded the largest absolute increase in consumption between 1988 and 1997, 33 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu). This was more than double the increase of 16 quadrillion Btu for North America, the second largest regional increase in consumption • Asia also had the largest absolute increase in energy production between 1988 and 1997, 22 quadrillion Btu. The Middle East had the second largest regional increase at 16 quadrillion Btu.

  5. World Energy Use Source: DOE/EIA-0484(98) World Energy Consumption

  6. US Energy Use Energy Information Administration 2000

  7. World Oil Production Scientific American, March 98 (Jean H. LeHerrere)

  8. World Oil Production Worldwatch Institute

  9. Global Oil Stocks Billions of Barrels per Year 35 2600 30 25 2200 20 1800 15 10 5 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

  10. US Energy Use/Capita DOE/EIA-0383 2002

  11. US Net Oil Imports

  12. US Oil Imports EIA Weekly 2002

  13. U.S. Energy Flows 1997

  14. US Electrical Energy

  15. Atmospheric CO2

  16. Global Carbon Emissions/Person

  17. The Built Environment • A significant impact on available natural resources • Globally, the building industry consumes • 40% of the raw stone, gravel, and sand • 25% of the virgin timber • In the United States, buildings consume • 31% of the total energy expended each year • 50% of the SO2 • 25% of the NOx • 35% of the CO2 produced • $ 210 billion for energy each year • 120 billion for residential • $90 billion for commercial buildings

  18. Why Conserve Energy? • Stabilize atmospheric carbon • Reduce global climate change impacts • Reduce fossil fuels consumption • Finite supply • world oil consumption will soon surpass production • in the next decade world oil production will peak • Curtail poor air quality and ozone depletion • The challenge is to modify current practices • SmartEnergy Solutions

  19. Illinois Concerns • Annual energy expenditures in Illinois • $30.1 billion • Commercial buildings • $5.2 billion • The vitality of small businesses in Illinois is affected by these costs • Small Business $mart Energy Program • Seeks to help Illinois businesses to identify opportunities to save energy and money • Create and save jobs

  20. Energy and Historic Structures

  21. Energy Conservation • Two types • Embodied energy • The energy that the building embodies • Operational energy • The energy required to run the building • Energy code requirements • Any permitted project typically requires adherence to code • Doesn’t apply to single family residences • Historic buildings are exempt • Determination that you are eligible

  22. Conservation Strategies • Lighting • HVAC • Thermal Envelope

  23. Lighting • An important consideration for Main Street buildings • Energy savings through lighting choices may occur directly or indirectly • Directly, lowering the average number of Watts used per fixture will lower energy consumption. Indirectly, lowering the number of Watts used will also lower the amount of heat added to the building. • This reduction will assist with reducing cooling efforts in warmer months.

  24. Lighting Alternatives • Incandescent versus Fluorescent lighting • Incandescent lighting • a high-energy choice especially for the amount of light provided • Color Considerations • Fluorescent • Compact Fluorescent • No change in fixture or lumens • 15,000 hours • three-times the average lifetime of an incandescent bulb • Tube fluorescents • T12 bulbs • 40-Watt and 32-Watt type • 32-Watt reduces light levels by15% • T8 can used without replacing fixtures • replacing only ballasts • Other considerations • Color rendition, and luminance levels should be considered in lighting choices, and may alter the amount of energy savings. • new energy efficient bulbs realize desired color rendition and luminance

  25. Lighting Comparison

  26. Lighting Comparison

  27. Other Control Strategies • Exit Signs • Light Emitting Diodes (LED) • do not require bulb replacement. • Average life is ten years • Incandescent sign is less than one year • Lighting Controls • Time-based controls • Where occupancy and lighting needs are predictable • Light-based sensors • valuable in Main Street retail and office space, where large front windows allow natural light to enter the building • Occupancy-based controls • Controlling light usage in rooms where occupancy is unpredictable

  28. Exit Lights Analysis • Assuming exit lights per Main Street space • Operating 8,760 hours per year (24 hours a day, 365 days a year) • Incandescent • 20 Watts per sign • cost $35 a year for two signs • LED fixture, • 2.5 Watts per sign • Cost $4.40 per year • Immediate savings of $30.60 per year • Lifecycle approach • Ten-year period • First cost + operational costs • two incandescent fixtures is approximately $365 • two LED fixtures $125

  29. HVAC • Air Based Systems • Radiant Systems • Ground Source Heat Pumps • Controls

  30. Air Based Systems • Ducted systems • Can do heat and cool • Use 90% condensing furnaces and SEER 14+ AC units • Avoid ducts in un-conditioned spaces (attics) • Define the thermal envelope • Use high-low returns wherever possible • Downside • Require extensive remodeling and may compromise the existing space • May encourage moisture problems • Heat the air not necessarily the ‘stuff’ • Moves dirt • Stratification in high spaces

  31. Radiant Systems • Heat things not the air • CI Radiators • Base board • Floor based systems • Effective in historic structures • Work well with typical envelope construction techniques • Keeps the wall dry • Work well in volume spaces • Require alternative AC systems

  32. Ground Source Heat Pumps • Radiant based • Heat and Cool • Conserves energy • Minimum retrofit required • Drawbacks • Need space for wells • Electric based

  33. Controls • Programmable Thermostats • help reduce energy consumption used for heating, cooling, and • set back during non-business or unoccupied hours • reducing the amount of energy used • For typical office use • For operations of ten hours a day, five days a week • Can reduce heating and cooling functions for 118 out of the 168 hours in a week—70% of the time • For Retail • Hours of operation 9-9 (12 hours a day, 84 hours a week) • Setback 84 out of 168 hours of the week—50%!

  34. Setback Thermostats

  35. Define the thermal envelope Walls Insulating walls R-20 minimum assembly Rigid foam Fiberglass Dense packed cellulose From interior Vapor barriers Moisture concerns Windows LowE Don’t need to replace for efficiency Poor paybacks on replacement Wash U Energy efficient storm windows Need operable windows Roofs R-40 minimum Green roofs High albedo (reflectance) Envelopes

  36. Illinois SmartEnergy Assistance Center www.sedac.org under construction contact deal@uiuc.edu