PHARMACOLOGY Kristine Glory DR. Mendillo, BSN, RN Academic Instructor
Blood Pressure It is measured by using a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer Existing pressure in the blood vessels
Adrenergic Neuron Blockers Reserpine Guanethidine Guanadrel
Alpha 1 Beta 1 Adrenergic Blockers Labetalol (Normodyne) Carteolol (Cartrol) This group blocks both alpha1 beta1 receptors.
Direct Acting Arteriolar Vasodilators Nitropusside Diaxozide Direct acting vasodilators acts relaxing the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, mainly arteries, causing vasodilation
ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors Captopril (Catapres) EnalaprilMaleate (Vasotec) It inhibits ACE, which in turn inhibits the formation of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor) and blocks the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion.
(ARB) Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Losartan (Cozaar) Valsartan (Diovan) These agents are similar to ACE inhibitors , in that they prevent the release of aldosterone (sodium retaining hormone)
Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren (Tekturna) It binds with renin, causing a reduction of angiotensin I, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels
Calcium Channel Blockers Verapamil (Calan SR) Diltiazem (Cardizem) Amlopidine (Norvasc) Slow calcium channel blockers are found in the myocardium (heart muscle) and vascular smooth muscles (VSM) cells. Free calcium increases muscle contractility, peripheral resistance, and blood pressure.
Hydrochlorothiazide The most frequent diuretic that is combined with an antihypertensive drug (Aldactazide) hydrochlorothiazide with spironolactone
HYPERTENSION CLASSIFICATION Pre hypertension SBP 120-139mmHg Stage 1, 140-160 mmHg Stage 2, greater than 160mmHg
HYPERTENSION CLASSIFICATION 1 isolated systolic hypertension 130/85 2 isolated systolic hypertension 175/85mmHg
ANTIPLATELET ClopidogrelBisulfate To prevent recurrence of MI, stroke, prevent vascular death Action: inhibits platelet aggregation.
HMG CoA reductase inhibitor Lovastatin (mevacor) Simvastatin (Zocor)
Cholesterol Levels 150-200 mg/dl
Digoxin Levels 1.5-2ng/ml
LOVE and Other Drugs! Furosemide Sucralfate Digoxin
Furosemide (Lasix) To treat fluid rentention fluid overload caused by Heart Failure, renal dysfunction, hypertension and acute pulmonary edema Action: inhibition of sodium and water reabsorption from the loop of henle and distal renal tubules. K, Mg, Ca may be excreted.
Digoxin (Lanoxin) LANOXIN (digoxin) is a cardiac glycoside, a closely related group of drugs having in common specific effects on the myocardium. These drugs are found in a number of plants. Digoxin is extracted from the leaves of Digitalis lanata. The term “digitalis” is used to designate the whole group of glycosides. The glycosides are composed of 2 portions: a sugar and a cardenolide (hence “glycosides”).
Sucralfate (Carafate) Sucralfate is a unique oral drug that is used for treating ulcers of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Chemically, it is a complex of the disaccharide sugar, sucrose, combined with sulfate and aluminum. It
Love, Pharmacology. THE END