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Pharmacology. Drugs that Affect the Gastrointestinal System. Topics. Peptic Ulcer Disease Constipation Diarrhea Emesis Digestion. Peptic Ulcer Disease. Factors that Increase Acidity. Factors that Protect Against Acidity. Factors Increasing H. pylori NSAIDs Acidic agents Pepsin

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Pharmacology


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    1. Pharmacology Drugs that Affect the Gastrointestinal System

    2. Topics • Peptic Ulcer Disease • Constipation • Diarrhea • Emesis • Digestion

    3. Peptic Ulcer Disease Factors that Increase Acidity Factors that Protect Against Acidity

    4. Factors Increasing H. pylori NSAIDs Acidic agents Pepsin Smoking Factors Decreasing Mucus production Buffers Blood flow Prostaglandins Peptic Ulcer Disease

    5. Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion

    6. H2 Receptor Antagonists • Inhibits gastric acid secretion • No effect on H1 receptors • cimetidine (Tagamet®) • ranitidine (Zantac®) • famotidine (Pepcid®) • nizatidine (Axid®)

    7. H2 Receptor Antagonists • Indications: • PUD • GERD • Prevention of aspiration pneumonia

    8. Proton Pump Inhibitors • K+H+ATPase (Proton Pump) • Irreversible inhibition • Must synthesize new enzyme • Long duration • omeprazole (Prilosec®) • lansoprazole (Prevacid®)

    9. Anticholinergics • pirenzepine (Gastrozepine®) • Other anticholinergics have too many side effects and are not used

    10. Prostaglandin Analog • misoprostol (Cytotec®) • Approved for treating PUD due to long term NSAID use

    11. Antacids • Increase pH of gastric environment • Hydroxides • Aluminum • Magnesium • Carbonates • Calcium

    12. Antacids • Most OTC drugs are combinations • DiGel® • Amphojel® • Maalox® • Milk of Magnesia® • Mylanta®

    13. Antibiotics • Aimed at eliminating H. pylori • bismuth (Pepto-Bismol®) • metronidazole (Flagyl®) • amoxicillin (Amoxil®) • tetracycline (Achromycin V®)

    14. Stool Formation Water absorbed in colon (~90%) • Excessive absorption • Constipation: hard, dehydrated stool • Increases strain on defecation • Harmful for subset of patients • Recent episiotomy, colostomy, hemorrhoids, cardiovascular disease • Inadequate absorption • Diarrhea: soft, non-formed, liquid stool

    15. Terms Laxative Production of soft, formed stool over 1 or more days Cathartic Rapid, intense fluid evacuation of bowel.

    16. Laxatives • Bulk forming • Surfactants • Stimulants • Osmotics

    17. Absorb water Soften and enlarge stool Fecal swelling promotes peristalsis methylcellulose (Citrucel®) psyllium (Metamucil®) Polycarbophil Bulk Forming Laxatives

    18. Lowers surface tension Facilitates water penetration Docusate salts Colace® Modane Soft®) Surfanctant Laxatives

    19. Stimulate peristalsis Increases water and electrolytes secretion into intestinal lumen Decreases water and electrolyte reabsorption Phenylolpthalein (Ex-Lax®, Feen-a-Mint®, Correctol®) bisacodyl (Ducolax®) Stimulant Laxatives

    20. Poorly absorbed salts remain in fecal matter Pull water into lumen Magnesium hydroxid (Milk of Magnesia®) Osmotic Laxatives

    21. Antidiarrheal • Diarrhea is usually a compensatory action… • Treatment aimed at cause, no symptom • Opioid receptors in GI tract decrease motility • Increase time for water reabsorbtion

    22. Antidiarrheal Agents • paregoric/opium tincture • diphenoxylate (Lomotil®) • defenoxin (Motofen®) • loperamide (Imodium®)

    23. Vomiting Stimulus

    24. Antiemetics • Serotonin (5HT) Antagonists • Dopamine (DA) Antagonists • Anticholinergics (muscarinic blockers) • Cannabinoids

    25. Serotonin Antagonists • Used to treat side effects of chemotherapy-induced emesis • condansetron (Zofran®) • Doesn’t affect dopamine receptors •  no extrapyramidal effects • Granisetron (Kytril®)

    26. Dopamine Antagonists • Phenothiazines • prochloraperazine (Compazine®) • promethazine (Phenergan®) • Butyrophenones • haloperidol (Haldol®) • droperidol (Inapsine®) • metoclopramide (Reglan®)

    27. Cannabinoids • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • Active ingredient in marijuana • Dronabinol (Marinol®) • Nabilone (Cesamet®)

    28. Digestion Aids • Useful for inactive vagal stimulus/bypassed duodenum • Pancreatin (Entozyme®) • Pancrelipase (Viokase®)