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The Tundra. Haley , Erin , Sam , Jay , Jayden. Location. Light Brown is the Tundra. Climate.

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the tundra

The Tundra

Haley, Erin, Sam, Jay, Jayden


Light Brownis the Tundra


Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons.

The average winter temperature is -34° C (-30° F), but the average summer temperature is 3-12° C (37-54° F) which enables this biome to sustain life.

plant life
Plant Life
  • There are no deep root systems in the vegetation of the arctic tundra, however, there are still a wide variety of plants that are able to resist the cold climate. There are about 1,700 kinds of plants in the arctic and subarctic, and these include:
    • Low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and grasses
    • 400 varieties of flowers
    • Crustose and foliose lichen
  • All of the plants are adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures and are protective snow during the winter. They can carry out photosynthesis at low temperatures and low light intensities. The growing seasons are short and most plants reproduce by budding and division rather than sexually by flowering.

Animals are adapted to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer. Animals such as mammals and birds also have additional insulation from fat. Many animals hibernate during the winter because food is not abundant. Another alternative is to migrate south in the winter, like birds do. Reptiles and amphibians are few or absent because of the extremely cold temperatures. Because of constant immigration and emigration, the population continually oscillates.

    • Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels
    • Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears
    • Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns, snow
    • Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees
  • birds, and various species of gulls Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout

Arctic tundra is a landscape of amazing contrasts. View it from a distance, or visit in midwinter, and you might think it is barren. It's not. Though treeless and often bitter cold, Arctic tundra is an ecosystem of great beauty and abundance, shaped by the dramatic seasons of the far north.


You can ski in Switzerland and you can shop. Those are some main attractions in Switzerland.


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