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Chapter 32. Supine Ut + Indicative More Relatives More Subjunctive uses Impersonal constructions. Supine. Another VERBAL NOUN (in addition to Gerund) But … only 2 CASES! Built off of 4 th Principal Part, adding 4 th Declension Endings. Supine. Only 2 uses!

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chapter 32

Chapter 32

Supine

Ut + Indicative

More Relatives

More Subjunctive uses

Impersonal constructions

supine
Supine

Another VERBAL NOUN (in addition to Gerund)

But … only 2 CASES!

Built off of 4th Principal Part, adding 4th Declension Endings

supine1
Supine
  • Only 2 uses!
  • Acc. is used after verbs of MOTION to express PURPOSE
    • Ex: venimusvīsumurbem.
      • We go to see the city
    • cubitumeō.
      • I go to lie down (The Roman way to say “I’m gonna go to bed”)

They can take their own objects, too!

supine2
Supine
  • Abl. is used as an ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION
  • Examples:
    • Mīrābiledictū
      • “Miraculous with respect to saying” = English, “A wonder to say”
    • Nefāsaudītū
      • “A crime with respect to hearing” = English, “A crime to hear”

Three more common supines:

Difficilecognītū

Optimum factū

Facile vīsū

These cannot take direct objects!

ut with indicative
Ut with Indicative
  • 2 possible meanings:
    • Time: WHEN
    • Comparison: AS
  • Examples:
    • Utsummōcōnspexitabmonteterrāsīnfēlix, timōretremuit
      • “When the unlucky guy saw the lands from the top of the mountain, he trembled with fear.”
    • Puellaetacentnec, ut ante solēbant, clāmantēs ambulant.
      • “The girls are silent and not, as they were accustomed beforehand, walking around and shouting.”
connecting relative
Connecting Relative
  • Sometimes a relative pronoun begins a new sentence and must be translated in a certain manner:
    • Quī … = et is / hic “And he”
    • Quae … = et ea / haec “And she”
    • Quod … = et id / hoc “And this”
    • Ex: Quod crēdīvixpotest.
      • “And this is scarcely able to be believed.”
    • THESE CANNOT BE TRANSLATED AS “WHO”, “WHAT”, or “WHICH”!
subjunctive with relatives
Subjunctive with Relatives
  • Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses:
    • 1) Clauses of Characteristic: These describe the qualities of indefinite antecedents and are usually introduced by
        • Suntquī
        • Is sum quī
        • Is estquī, etc.
      • Ex: suntquīGraecōsmeliōrēs quam Rōmānōshabeant
        • “There are those who consider Greeks (to be) better than Romans”
      • Nōn is sum quīfēmināsinterficiam.
        • “I am not the kind of guy who would kill women”

Always follow sequence of tenses!

subjunctive with relatives1
Subjunctive with Relatives

Always follow

Sequence of Tenses!!!!

  • Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses:
    • 2) Relative Clauses of Purpose: These replace ut …. in a Purpose Clause
      • Ex: lēgātōsmīsitquīpācempeterent.
        • “He sent legates who were to ask for peace” or “He sent legates to ask for peace”
      • Rōmānīarmarapiuntquibusurbemsuamdēfendant.
        • “The Romans take up the weapons with which they are to defend their city” or “The Romans take up weapons in order to defend their city”
subjunctives with relatives
Subjunctives with Relatives
  • Sometimes the subjunctive is used in relative clauses:
    • 3) Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Speech
      • RULE! DEPENDENT CLAUSES in INDIRECT STATEMENT, INDIRECT COMMAND, or INDIRECT QUESTION will ALWAYS have SUBJUNCTIVE verbs!
    • Ex.: dīcitsēlibrumlēgissequemdederim
      • “He says that he read the book which I gave him.
    • Iūrāvitsēlibrumlectūrumessequemscrīpsissem.
      • “He swore that he would read the book which I had written”

Note how the TENSE of the SUBJUNCTIVE follows SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Established by the MAIN VERB (Here, dīcit and Iūrāvit)!

potential subjunctive
Potential Subjunctive
  • The main clause in Future Less Vivid Conditions shows potentiality:
    • Sīsim bonus, bona faciam.
      • “If I should be good, then I would do good things”
  • A Potential Subjunctive simply expresses this by itself, without the Sī clause
  • The negative is nōn
  • Possible tenses: Present, Perfect, Imperfect
  • It most frequently appears:
    • Velim: “I would like”
    • Mālim: “I would prefer”
    • Possim: “I could”
potential subjunctive1
Potential Subjunctive
  • Examples:
    • tūvelimsīcexīstimēs
      • “I’d like you to think so”
      • Present = Immediate future
    • Pācetuādīxerim
      • “I would say with your permission”
      • Perfect = Immediate future
    • Crēderēsvictōs
      • “You would have thought them conquered”
      • This use of the second person is indefinite, like in English when we say, “You’d go right at the stop sign to get to the grocery store” = “One goes right at the stop sign …”
      • Imperfect = Past time
    • Aliquisdīcat
      • “Someone may say”
      • Present = Immediate future

Notice the rather strange use

of the perfect tense to refer to

immediate future time, just

as the present does

impersonal constructions
Impersonal Constructions
  • Like English, Latin has some verbs that are only used impersonally:
    • Oportet + acc. + infinitive = “It is right for x to y”
    • Licet + dat. + infinitive = “It is permitted for x to y”
  • Other verbs are used impersonally in certain contexts:
    • Ventumest
      • Literally, “There was a coming” or “It was come” = “They came”
    • Pugnatumest
      • Literally, “It was fought” = “They fought”
  • As you continue in Latin you will come across even more Impersonal Verbs, but for now start with Oportet and Licet!