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Early Medieval Europe & Medieval Christianity. Effect of Fall of Rome in the West. Growth of Individual Kingdoms in West, especially Frankish Kingdom Merovingians: Clovis becomes Christian(495) Lombards threaten papacy Carolingians (Charles Martel, Pepin, Charlemagne)
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Effect of Fall of Rome in the West • Growth of Individual Kingdoms in West, especially Frankish Kingdom • Merovingians: Clovis becomes Christian(495) • Lombards threaten papacy • Carolingians (Charles Martel, Pepin, Charlemagne) • Continuation of Byzantine Kingdom in East • Relations with Eastern empire & church • Development of Roman church as key institution • Provided unity, ongoing Arian troubles • Split with the East
“The Empire” and After Impact of Rome’s Fall in the West Charles, King of the Franks Pepin III splits kingdom between sons, Charles and Carloman in 768 Charles sole king after 771 Charlemagne and “The Empire” • Personality • Expansion • Impact
Charlemagne & “The Empire” Charlemagne (768-814) • Expands kingdom of the Franks • Succession, wars against Saracens, Saxons • Christmas 800, declared Emperor by pope • Difficulties Managing Empire • Counts (comites or companions) • Duties: do justice, protect royal domains, raise army • Vassi, noblemen with a personal bond to king • Missi dominici • Usually two: one lay noble, one bishop • Duties: supervise counts, distribute capitularies
Carolingian Renaissance • Relations with the Christian Church • Education, cathedral schools • Monastic reform • Royal monasteries • Alcuin, education • Greek philosophy, John Scotus Erigena
The Empire after Charlemagne Louis the Pious (814–840) • Partible inheritance: four sons • Salic Law Treaty of Verdun (843) • Recognizes Lothar as Emperor • Splits Empire into Thirds Treaty of Mersen (870) • Divides Empire in Two
Post Mersen Disorder Nobles within empire press for local autonomy Raids by Vikings, Magyars, and Saracens require quick response, counts become hereditary Capitulary of Quierzy, 877 Carolingians die out: In France Hugh Capet becomes king (988) est. dynasty, lasts until 1328 (Capetians) In Germany, Otto I (936-973) establishes Saxon Dynasty (Ottonians) Otto II (973-983) Otto III (983-1002)
Feudalism Feudalism was a medieval contractual relationship among the European upper classes by which a lord granted land (a fief) to his man (a vassal) in return for military service. Vasslage bound the lord and vassal together • Oath of fealty • Hommage • Mutual duties and obligations
Manorialism Manorialism refers to a system whereby the land (or manor) owned by the lord was parceled out to individual peasants who farmed it. In return for the land, peasants made payments to the lord in the form of money, crops, and labor services. Manorialism established a social and political order that paralleled feudalism.
Origins of Manorialism (ca. 4th century) All over Europe, the economy had reverted primarily to subsistence farming . Allods, land freely held, thus allodial farming. Small farmers found themselves increasingly forced to seek the protection of more powerful neighbors. In return for this protection, farmers gave up certain rights and a portion of their income to their more powerful neighbors . Thus, freeholders often became serfs for protection from outside threats.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom • England divided into several kingdoms: • Northumbria • Mecia • Wessex • Political traditions based on personal bonds rather than office • Thegns or liegemen, Earls • Shire reeves • Hundreds
William “The Bastard,” 1066Battle of Hastings Duke of Normandy Successful Feudal Leadership 1066 Defeats Harold Godwinson at Hastings Adapts Feudalism to English setting Domesday Book (a register for taxation)
Rise of New States England • Norman overlords, Saxon population • Unified political organization • Church and State conflict • Criminous Clerks France • Small area of direct royal control, Île de France • Diverse legal and cultural territories • Weak central monarchy, strong vassals