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End User Architecting

End User Architecting

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End User Architecting

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  1. End User Architecting Vishal Dwivedi Institute for Software ResearchCarnegie Mellon University Advanced User Interface Software

  2. If you build it, they will come… “Hundreds of end user programming tools have been created in this hope. Not every tool succeeds. Many of them are built at a high cost, and are impoverished…” Life may have been much better if everyone did not start from scratch…

  3. Agenda • Motivation/Definitions • End User Architecting • Examples • Abstractions for dataflow, pub-sub, … • Style and the user interface elements • Analyses • Composition of user interfaces (and why it is a hard problem) • A framework for End User Architecting

  4. Definitions • “Software Architecture” • ‘‘The software architecture of a computing system is the set of structures needed to reason about the system, which comprise software elements, relations among them and properties of both.’’– Garlan and Shaw • High level of designabstractions and analysis • Emergent properties • Reuse of design styles, patterns, and frameworks

  5. Definitions • “Architecture Style” • A style defines the computation model, vocabulary consisting of elements such as components and connectors, their interfaces, and the constraints that they must obey. • Examples: dataflow, pub-sub, client-server, pipe and filter Gregory R. Abowd, Robert Allen, David Garlan, Using Style to Understand Descriptions of SoftwareArchitecture,” SIGSOFT ’94:

  6. Definitions • “Architecture Style” • Factors out common infrastructure. • Allows configuration with additional details. • Captures the domain elements and constraints on their usage. • Are translated into required technology-specific vocabulary.

  7. Recalling Brad’s Lecture • “Layers of UI software”

  8. Recalling Brad’s Lecture • For example: SUIT’s architecture Pausch, R., Conway, M., & DeLine, R. (1992). Lesson Learned from SUIT, the Simple User Interface Toolkit. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10(4), 320-344.

  9. Adding an additional architecture Layer User interface Visual Language Analysis Guidance Translation Architectural Layer Architectural Layer Domain-specific architectural styles Execution Platform Code Generation Monitoring Adaptation Platforms like SOA, SCA etc

  10. End User Architecting • Similar to end-user programming, it recognizes up front that the key issue for end user programming is bridging the gap between available computational resources and the skill set of the users who must harness them [Nardi,93] • But unlike end-user programming, it seeks to find higher-level abstractions that leverage architectural techniques for defining the domain, supporting compositions, and aiding in tradeoffs and analyses. • Three key elements to the approach • An architecture layer between the user interface and execution environment supports explicit representation of end‐user compositions • A reusable style that can be specialized for specific domains • A graphical front end for composition and for analyzing and executing compositions

  11. End User Architecture Approach • Architecture layer between user interface and execution environment • Raises level of abstraction, making it easier for users to understand the vocabulary • Provides a basis for architectural analysis, guidance, composition • Architectural styles help domain specialization • Styles define the vocabulary for compositions in a domain. • Domain-specific specializations for each domain further refine vocabulary, rules, and concerns

  12. ExamplePub-Sub Style (Ozone Widgets)

  13. ExamplePub-Sub Style (Ozone Widgets) • Ozone provides a framework for creation and integration of HTML widgets • Widgets can publish and subscribe to channels to communicate messages. • End users can specify which pairs of widgets can send/receive messages Widget B Subscribe Publish Subscribe Widget A Widget C

  14. ExamplePub-Sub Style (Ozone Widgets) • Key features of End User Architecting: • Architectural Style: Compositions are defined using a variant of a publish-subscribe style that takes into account the idea of restrictions. • Architecture Representation: Ozone widget configurations are represented as explicit architectural models, that indicate which widgets are involved in a composition and the communication topology. • Analysis: such as which widgets are communicating, whether there are data mismatches over publish-subscribe channels, how to restrict communication to minimize event messaging… • Reuse: Component based reuse • User interface: Additional widgets to inform the user about restrictions, widget communications and other analyses.

  15. ExampleDataflow based compositions Sequence Receive Assign Assign Invoke Assign Assign Wait Assign Assign X Sequence X 0 Catch Assign Sequence Invoke Assign Assign Assign Assign While Assign Sequence Assign Assign Assign Invoke Wait Reply Wait Wait Wait Invoke Throw Assign Assign Assign Assign Assign Assign X X X Sequence Sequence Sequence X X X 0 0 0 Catch Catch Catch Assign Assign Assign Sequence Sequence Sequence Invoke Invoke Invoke Assign Assign Assign While While While Assign Assign Assign Sequence Sequence Sequence Invoke Invoke Invoke Wait Wait Wait Reply Reply Reply Invoke Invoke Invoke Throw Throw Throw Assign Invoke Reply

  16. ExampleDataflow style vocabulary (created by refinement) Root Style Specialization for Neuroscience Specialization for Intelligence Analysis Vishal Dwivedi et al. An Architectural Approach to End User Orchestrations. ECSA 2011: 370-378

  17. ExampleDataflow UI elements Workflow Editor YUI Layout Perspective (Compose, Execute, Analyze) YUI Layout Palette Canvas (Container) Module Data Service Multi Port Service Service • YUI framework defines the GUI widgets, events and controls, utilities • A style maps these compositions to an architectural representation • This is analyzed for various quality attributes.

  18. ExampleDataflow analyses • Architectural specification allows domain-specific analyses, such as: • Data mismatch • Security • Ordering • Domain-specific constraints (e.g. above diagram before a brain image is visualized it • should be registered and converted in a specific format.) Resolving Data Mismatches in End-User Compositions, ISEUD 2013

  19. ExampleDataflow Style (Widgets) • Key features of End User Architecting: • Architectural Style: Compositions are defined using a variant of a dataflow style that is specialized for a domain • Architecture Representation: Workflows are instances of the style. • Analysis: custom analyses for data-mismatch, security/privacy violations, ordering analyses, etc. • Reuse: Reuse of component vocabularies, compositions, etc. • User interface: A dataflow based interface having element vocabulary defined in a domain-specific style.

  20. The Bigger Problem • Creating compositions today is difficult for end users due to: • Complexity due to low-level details • For example, parameters, file systems, paths, operating systems, etc • Lack of support for error resolution • For example, Analyses for quality attributes such as security and privacy and other syntactic and semantic problems. • Conceptual mismatch • For example, “Remove Image Noise” as opposed to calling the specific program(s) to perform this function. • Composing UI components is even harder!

  21. Composing User interfaces with Interviews The premise: • Object oriented User interface code • Separate interactors • Iconic interfaces • Tradeoff at the level of GUI consistency. But what if GUI objects have semantic meanings? Mark A. Linton, John M. Vlissides, Paul R. Calder: Composing User Interfaces with InterViews. IEEE Computer 22(2): 8-22 (1989)

  22. Building blocks for reusability • Tailoring by: • Extension and refinement • Specialization of components and virtual binding • But who does that? Anders I. Mørch: Application Units: Basic Building Blocks of Tailorable Applications. EWHCI 1995: 45-62

  23. But certain communities have handled this wellE-sciences (e.g. LONI pipeline, Taverna) Loni Pipeline demo • Things they did well: • Componentization of functionalities as services • Pluggable visual components, with search and discovery • And most importantly, creating an ecosystem with different developer roles.

  24. HALO: a framework for End User Architecting

  25. Current work • HALO SDK (and plugins) for: • Architectural representation, • Packaging and reuse • Data reference • Multiple analyses • Component registry • Execution-support • Hypotheses: • Associating architectural specifications with user interfaces will allow a greater level of analysis and reuse. • Many tool capabilities will be provided by the framework. So this will lower cost of tool development and improve quality.

  26. Questions?

  27. References • Anders I. Mørch: Application Units: Basic Building Blocks of Tailorable Applications. EWHCI 1995: 45-62 • David Garlan,Vishal Dwivedi,Ivan Ruchkin and Bradley Schmerl. Foundations and Tools for End-User Architecting. In Proc. 17th Monterey Workshop, Oxford, 2012, UK • David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl, Vishal Dwivedi, Aparup Banerjee, Laura Glendenning, Mai Nakayama, and Nina Patel. Swift: A tool for constructing workflows for dynamic network analysis., 2011. • Gregory R. Abowd, Robert Allen, David Garlan, Using Style to Understand Descriptions of Software Architecture,” SIGSOFT ’94: • Mark A. Linton, John M. Vlissides, Paul R. Calder: Composing User Interfaces with InterViews. IEEE Computer 22(2): 8-22 (1989) • Ozone Widget Framework • Pausch, R., Conway, M., & DeLine, R. (1992). Lesson Learned from SUIT, the Simple User Interface Toolkit. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10(4), 320-344. • Perla Velasco-Elizondo, Vishal Dwivedi, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl and Jose Maria Fernandes. Resolving Data Mismatches in End-User Compositions, In Fourth International Symposium on End-User Development (ISEUD), 2013, Denmark. • Vishal Dwivedi et al. An Architectural Approach to End User Orchestrations. ECSA 2011: 370-378