One-Way Electric Line(B-Line) One face is better Museum visitor Two faces Janus The Israel Museum, Jerusalem Michael Bank E-mail: email@example.com There are some articles in site: www. OFDMA-Manfred.com 1
Content : Slides Introduction 3 Part 1. Main idea 8 Part 2. Low (50 Hz) Frequency B-Line 10 Part 3 The first B-line experiments 43 Part 4. Power loses and interferences 48 Part 5. High-Frequency One-Wire Line 62 Part 6. Using B-Line in antenna construction 68 Part 7. B-Line for DC 71 Part 8. Expectations, dreams, hopes 72 Conclusion 81
Part 1. Introduction “Transmission of electricity requires at least two wires” - this statement has been ingrained in the consciousness of engineers for over 150 years. This is two-way system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line
One Way System Examples Fiber Optic Systems Waveguide
Radio Systems Can a one-wire method also be used in any electrical system for transmission of energy or information?
Mechanical Telegraph One line mechanical system Energy is transferred in one direction from the source to the load and does not return. Why do we need two channels?
Earlier Attempts • Single-wire electrical energy transmission by Nikola Tesla (1890) [US Patent number 1,119,736) • The Goubau line, a single-wire transmission line at microwave frequencies. (Geog Goubau, "Surface waves and their Application to Transmission Lines," Journal of Applied Physics 21 (1950)) • AFEP experiment based on the Russian patent application (1993 ) by Stanislav and Konstantin Avramenko (PCT/GB93/00960 ). • These methods all lead to loss of energy and a change in the signal waveform. • Known single-wire system SWER transmits only half the source energy
Part 1. Main idea One-Way Electric Line Model In this two line system (A-Line), the currents in each wire are in opposite phases. • The source (generator) produces two signals of opposite phases • The current will flow through the load with opposite phases as well.
Main Idea: With the inverters, we can get the same potential polarity in both wires RL G Inv Inv B-Line: Wires with the same (equipotential) currents can be combined.
Part 2. Low (50 Hz) Frequency B-Line 2.1 Basic simulations That's one of the simulations for the verification of Ohm's law in the proposed scheme. In this known A-Line circuit current amplitude everywhere should be 90 A. 1 kOhm is the lines resistance. In the proposed B-Line scheme, we added inverters at the input and output, and combined the two lines. As a result a line resistance is 0.5kOhm. The simulation shows that the currents at the input and output have not changed. The polarity of the load current depends on where the inverter is at the top or bottom.
B-Line with two delay lines ADS simulation This position of probe shows positive current direction. 11
B-Line with two transformers ADS simulation A-line simulation example 1 V A-line scheme 1 kOhm + - Probe 1
B-line simulation The delay line of half a period at a frequency of 50 Hz has a length of 3000 km. Therefore, this type of inverter can be used only in simulations. Here one can see results of simulations real scheme, where inverter build by transformers with opposite windings (onwards Tr-Inv).
2.2 Single Wire Three-Phase System It is possible converting B-Line to three phase signal by two filters and inverter After inverter for phase 3 After two filters 2 Three identical B-Lines 3 1 B-Line 4 2 3 1 The same circuit, but in reverse sequence converts three phase signal to B-Line 4
One wire to three phase scheme Scheme with additional inverter T6 for receiving phase difference +/- 1200. 1 1 4 3 2 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4
Three phase scheme simulation results We reached a three-phase voltage.
2.3 About ground using So we to provide required Tr-Inv we use the transformer with opposite windings. And we have to turn it into one wire (lower one on the picture). You can not turn it on, since no current will flow through the windings. It is therefore logical to apply zeroing at the lower point. Now through each winding its own current will flow only. Current. which follows from the secondary winding is equal to the current flowing in the primary winding. The ground is needed, that would be current flowed in the windings. It flows into the ground and spreads out in an endless ground, as is the case with a protective earth.
Current spreads in the earth in all directions and therefore countless ground resistance is zero. If we carry the current in a wire connected to ground, the wire current flows, but in the ground it will not be (if grounding ideal) because the potential at the connection point all the time is zero. In the case of protective grounding, if an accident happens, the current anywhere in the other place does not get. Wikipedia: In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. Where a real ground connection has a significant resistance, the approximation of zero potential is no longer valid. The main characteristic of the grounding resistance is spreading current, i.e., a resistance that the earth (ground) has a current spreading at the site of this current. Land spreading is a ground area that surrounds the grounding electrodes, in which the boundary of the current density is so low that potential, which has virtually no land depends on the current flowing from the electrodes. That is why outside of this boundary current can always be equated to zero. http://expert-montag.ru/article/zashhitnoe_zazemlenie.html
In the proposed B-Line scheme, the current of the A-Line second line does not go into the ground. It flows into the first line after inverting the phase. Taking into account importance of this issue, we give here four proofs of the fact that ground does not participate in signal transduction in the proposed system. Although one proof (any) would be sufficient Proof 1. Return to the B-Line simulation. In accordance with Ohm's law, in a case of the source with a voltage of 1 volt and 1kOhm load, the current is equal to 1mA. This is exactly the obtained in the simulation. If some other current flowed into earth, the current in the lines would be lower. The result of simulation shows that there is no other current except the current in lines.
Proof 2. If one part of the scheme (transmitting or receiving) do with the delay line, the circuit works properly and gives exactly the same load current. Obviously, in this case there is no connection to the ground.
Proof 3. One opponents objection against the single-wire method is as follows. In the scheme, where the inverters in the form of transformers, there is current in the transmitting part, which goes into the ground. But if in the simulation with a long B-Line of we replace ground on the trunk, the scheme does not work. Probe1 1 V 50 Ohm Probe 2 Probe 3 A A A Probe 1 Probe 3 Probe 2
Proof 4. The current in the transmitting part, which requires a zeroing has polarity corresponds to polarity of the common wire, that is coincident with the polarity of the applied voltage. ( Zero potential is possible to get not only with the help of ground, but with the compensation current by current with opposite polarity.Suppose we want to transmit energy in various places. Then it can be in two different lines apply signals of opposite polarity. If you connect the dots require a zeroing of both schemes, the ground connections are not required. + - Gen + -
Ideal ground is actually absorption, similar to the absorption of light by perfect blackbody Absorbable current In fact, in the case of ideal protective ground the entire current is absorbed without any reflection or without reaching any other load. I = 0 It is reminiscent of the absorption of the light beam by perfectly black surface No light No reflections
J 2 J J 1:1 1:1 2 J - 2 J Absorbable current is equal to the current in the common wire
J 2 J 1:100 100:1 - J 1:1 - 0.02 J 1:1 - 2 J 2.02 J - 2 J 0.02 J 0.02 J 2.02 J Absorbable current is greatly reduced if the line voltage is increased
2.4 May be is it possible to dispense with the inverter in receiving part? Basis B-Line 20 mA 20 mA 40 mA 20 mWt 20 mWt
B-Line without second invertor 5 mA 10 mA 1 V 5 mWt 5 mWt Load power decreased by 4 times. But 4 times decreased power feed source too.
Explanation of the reducing process of the received and given powers. +/- V/2 +/- V/2 +/- V/2 = V V -/+ V/2 -/+ V/2 This not only reduces the voltage, but also resistance. Obviously, the use of transformer 1 : 2 does not lead to losses.
Basis without second invertor and with first transformer 1 : 2 20 mA 20 mA 20 mWt 1 : 2 1 V 20 mWt Yes, you can do without a second inverter.To provide power for appliances can apply one wire and earth. However, the need to apply twice the voltage.
2.5 Absorbable current minimization If the building is supplied by two-wire cable, for example as single-phase of three-phase system, in the ground does not current flows. The results of simulations confirm this. This simulation shows that even in case of a large number of consumers, there is no danger of a strong input current into the ground when house flats are equipped with a single-wire system.
If the object is connected to the single-wire line. Than can divide object into two parts, and supply it by the signals of different polarity. Then, under the same load, currents reaching the ground will be compensated. In this simulation resistances 1 kOhm is half objects parallel loads. Object Transformer vault + 0.125 mA + 0. 25 mA + 0.25 mA + 0. 25 mA - 0.25 mA - 0. 25 mA Input power Output power P = 2[(0.25mA)2 * 1000 ]= 0. 125 mW P = 1 * 0.125 = 0.125mW
Absorbable current in building minimization Single-wire distribution Single-wire distribution grounding Two B-Lines
The use of protection grounding to reset the transformer is not a means of communication between the source and the load 20 m R = 4 Ohm 20 m R = 4 Ohm 0.1 1 kOhm/m Absorption space If the power goes out a few lines, the currents in the ground point can be compensated by an appropriate choice of the polarity signal. Very only approximate figures. The transmitted power of 1 GW. Voltage 1000 kVSo current can be 1000A. Or resistance 1000000/1000 = 1000 ohmsGround impedance 4 ohms. delta-grup.ru/bibliot/97/89/htm
2.6 Know-how – without inverters and grounding It is possible to make 50 Hz source without grounding using. It offers single-pole source (generator) and a single-pole signal receiver (e.g. motor). They can connect one wire without the use of inverters and therefore no ground (no zeroing)..
Actually output stage of popular operational amplifiers is single pole source OA 741
2.7 SWER system The proposed B-Line (single-wire) system is often compared to SWER system. As usual SWER one translate like:Electricity distribution method using only one conductor with the return path through earth.But this system should be called:Transmission system over a single wire, where ground is used instead of the second wire and where the distance between the source and the load is large, so that the resistance on the ground between them is much greater than the resistance of the wire. The ground in SWER (after generator and before load) makes zeroing. That is, the current in a conductor connected to the ground, anyone in the other place does not receives this current.
An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ground_(electricity) : x
Let we have extended SWER line. At the input of the receiving transformer potential difference is asymmetric. Indeed the signal phase at the end of a line will depend upon the distance from the source. A potential of grounding point does not depend on the distance and is always zero. That is, such a line can be represented as a line having both an active and reactive load. So in this line s an reactive power It is well-known that reactive power is always present in a circuit where there is a phase difference between voltage and electric current in that circuit such as all our domestic loads are inductive. So, there is a phase difference between voltage and current, and the current lags behind the voltage by certain angle in time domain. Reactive power source additionally loads the source and decreases system efficiency.
Consider the 150 km long SWER system. In this system, the resistance of the generator power 50 Ohm and load resistance is 1 kOhm Grounding of receiving transformers made in the form of a shorted delay line by half a period. Thus both grounded points are not connected (See Annex). Here it is seen that the current generator which produces more than three times the load current. It is obvious that this ratio increases with the length of the line.
In the case of B-Line system load is balanced signal, so there is no reactive energy. This is clearly seen from the simulation scheme similar to the previous one. In the case of B-Line current of generator substantially equals to the current in the load.
Part 3. The first B-line experiments The experiments confirmed the results of simulations. 43
Model was constructed to test the possible influence of the neutral conductor of three-phase system (photo in next slide) At the entrance isolation transformer is applied to avoid possible grounding system through the neutral wire three-phase network. Resistance of the primary windings of transformers is approximately 400 Ohm. The output voltage was equal to the calculated value.
Experiment B-Line in JCT In addition to conducting simulations and experiments, it was decided to make an experimental line between two buildings JCT.The transmitting part (source) is housed in building Beren. The first receiver (light bulb 60 W) is located in another building. The second receiver (same bulb) is located in the same building (Beren), but in different room.These earth buildings are different. The wires between the source and receivers 200m long. 220 V voltage is supplied to source by a two-pin plug. Source has two single-ended output. The source is not connected to earth.
JCT experiment B-Line scheme 200 m House 1 200 m House 2
Part 4. Power loses and interferences 4.1 One wire instead 2 or 4 B-line system uses instead of two wires of A-line system one wire only. But one wire in B-Line and two wires in A-Line mast have the same resistance. Maybe three phase system gives advantage on cupper sawing? Let us compare. It is well known fact, that the main advantage of the three-phase system, compared to the one-phase system, is that the same power can be transmitted by using only three wires instead of six wires, saving twice the amount of material and losses. But in three phase system line voltage is: VLin = 3V . It does not influence a power, because it is known that power of three phase system equals 3Vlin*I . However this fact needs another comparison. In the two line system voltage can be increased by 3 with transformer. In this case the current decreases by the same3 and power does not change. But in three phase system voltage increases without current decreasing and its losses comparing to two wire system are greater. Despite on the advantages of three line system its behavior looks like a bad transformer (the voltages increase but a current does not drop down) 48
Comparison of losses in the three two wire system with three phase system with the same power of the transmitted signal can be formulated as follows. The losses of one three phase system are half of losses of three two wire systems, because it uses three wires instead of six. On the other hand the voltages are increased in the system by the root of three times without reducing the current. If in the two wire system we will raise the voltage at the root of three times, then the current will decrease and the power loss will be reduced by three times If we compare three phase system and two wires system with the same voltage between lines we will get power loses in three phase system by 3/2 more than in two or one wire systems 49
4.2 Corona discharge Corona, or crown - is a self-discharge that occurs in a highly non-uniform fields, in which the ionization processes can occur only in a narrow region near the electrodes. This sort of field is the electric field wires of overhead power lines. When a corona discharge in the ionization of air near the surface of the wire is formed the space charge of the same sign as the polarity of the voltage on the wire. One wire Two wires When two oppositely charged corona wires ions of opposite sign move in opposite directions. In the low field strength - in the middle between the wires - there is a partial recombination of the ions. Much the same part of them penetrate the crown area of the opposite polarity, increasing the field there. As a result, the ionization rate increases, the current crown, and, consequently, the energy loss increases. This regime is called bipolar corona crown. 50