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American Revolution

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  1. American Revolution Causes, effects, battles

  2. Road to the Revolution • Most Americans are proud to be British • Salutary Neglect – Wapole 1713-1763 • Whig and Prime Minister – believed in leaving the colonies alone • Why • Produce more wealth, commerce and less friction • Brits job was to provide peace, protection commerce and send more immigrants • Left to protect themselves against Natives

  3. Road to the Revolution • Had to effectively organize and become self=reliant • 13 separate governments emerged –undermine the authority of parliament • Why • Local government able to deal with local needs • Get used to dealing with our own affairs w/out Brits interfering

  4. Road to the RevolutionProtests • Paxton Boys – 1764 • Revolt against Quaker leniency regarding Natives Policy • 20 peaceful Natives are killed, march on Philadelphia demanding better representation, protection against the Natives on the frontier and funds for internal improvements

  5. Road to Revolution Protests • Regulator Movement 1771 • Eastern farmers in N Carolina frustrated with Brits taxes, inadequate representation of western farmers in assembly, legislation favors wealthy planters • Lasted 3 years

  6. Road to the Revolution • Mercantilists System – colonies existed for benefit of the mother country • Colonies add to wealth • Provide ships, sailors, trade • Raw materials—tobacco ,indigo ,lumber fish • Eliminates need Brits to buy supplies other countries

  7. Road to the Revolution First Law • Navigation Law-- • Purpose was to enforce mercantilism • Motive: restricted commerce to and from colonies “enumerated” articles like tobacco had to go to England –ONLY!!!!!!!!! • Even if price higher somewhere else • All goods going to American had to go to England first

  8. Road to Revolution restrictions • Molasses Act 1773– heavy taxes on molasses ,rum, sugar imported from French Caribbean • Colonists traded with French West Indies • Some Rum was produced in American and traded for slaves –New England heavily involved in slave trade • Until 1763 mercantilism did not impact colonial economy • Colonies protected by Brits free of charge • Colonies profit from manufacturing and trading

  9. Road to the Revolution • Mercantilism hinder colonies manufacturing • South has a major problem—(enumerated) • VA - --poor economic conditions leads to unrest • NE mad because Southern colonies get better treatment ---why?

  10. Road to the RevolutionRegulation • Writs of Assistance – search warrants harass colonial shippers • Aimed to smuggling – (illegal triangular trade) • 1761– James Otis –demands repeal • Parliament refuses –efforts spread throughout colonies – “no taxation without representation”

  11. Road to Revolution End of Salutary Neglect • 1763– George Greenville enforces Navigation Acts • Ability to try smugglers, tax evaders, ship owners, --no trial by jury • Debts from Seven Years War enormous • Half the debt due to protecting the colonies • Brits want colonists to pay for maintaining British troops

  12. Road to the Revolution • King George III –wanted to increase control over colonies • Proclamation of 1763--- colonials cant move West of Appalachians • Prevent future uprisings from Natives • Colonists react: veterans fought in French and Indian war betrayed, land speculators believed should be able to access land, colonists ignore it

  13. Road to the Revolution • Currency Act 1764--- printing colonial paper money restricted • Want the colonists to pay back debt with gold and silver • Sugar Acts – 1764– First Act Passed to raise revenue for the colonies • Regulate illegal triangular trade by collecting duties that the colonists had not paid for many years • Reduced taxes on Molasses but taxes all of it not • Not enforced effectively –duties lowered after Stamp Act

  14. Road to the Revolution • Quartering Act – 1765– certain colonies required to provide food and quarters for British troops

  15. 3 Main Crises American Revolution • Stamp Act– purpose was to raise revenue to support new military force in the colonies • Official stamps serve proof of payment • Greenville– (local authority for the King) • Stamp Act was reasonable • Required them to pay fair share for colonial defense

  16. Causes of the American Revolution • Virginia Resolves– (lead by Patrick Henry) • VA leaders –stamp act attacked colonists rights as Englishmen • 5 of 7 were adapted by House of Burgesses • VA could only be taxed by VA --- • No taxation without Representation • 8 other colonial assemblies passed similar resolutions

  17. Causes of the American Revolution • Difference between Legislation and Taxation • Legislation =external taxes which of right of parliament –tariffs • Taxation – internal taxes right of the local government • Greenville--- responds with “virtual representation”

  18. How will the colonists deal • Stamp Act Congress – 1765—27 delegates from 9 colonies • Draw up statement of rights and grievances and demanded it be rescinded • Ignored in England –did not really matter in colonies • What is the significance --- • Non-importation agreement against British Goods – hurt brits but did not change

  19. Dealing with the Brits • Sons of Liberty – Sam Adams • Violently enforce non importation agreements • Tarring and feathering, vandalized, • Forced agents to resign • 1766 Stamp Act will be repealed

  20. Brits Get Even • Declaratory act – • To say “we still have power” • Parliament has the right to tax in the future • Sugar tax lowered • Townsend Acts – 1767 – • Punish for uprising • Duty placed on glass, paper, paint, silk, tea

  21. Colonial Reaction • Raise Revenue ! ---NO WAY!!!!!!!!!! • John Dickinson –Letters From A Pennsylvania Farmer • Cant raise revenue off of our taxes • Massachusetts Circular Letter • Try to get colonies together to repeal

  22. What is Next!!!!!!!!!! • Brits send troops • Threaten to dissolve legislature • Anyone who supported it –dissolve legislature • VA, MS MA DE SC – all support • Boston Massacre

  23. Boston Massacre • Peaceful arrival of troops in Boston • Colonists are fearful of standing armies • Thought they were there to suppress liberties • March 5 1770– Brits fire on crowd (provoked) • Crispus Attucks –first to die in revolution • Propaganda exaggerated event • Spreads throughout colonies

  24. Now What!!!!!! • Townsend Acts repealed • Why • Pressure from colonies • Non importation agreements hurting British manufacturing • Did keep tea tax • Half troops are removed

  25. Gaspee Incident --1771 • British warship ran aground near RI pursing smugglers • Ship had reputation for stealing from colonists • Sons of Liberty– dress as Indians take crew off and set it on fire • Gaspee Commission --- seeks retribution • Cant find them

  26. Committees of Correspondence • Colonial discontent –Brits try to enforce Navigation Laws • Sam Adams – get people angry • Organizes committees –Nov 1772 • Function was to spread propaganda • Interchange letters in order to keep opposition alive • Inter colonial groups that emerge will be First American congresses

  27. Angry Colonists • Tea Act 1773 • British East India Tea Co--- granted monopoly • Price of tea will be lower even with the existing tax • Colonists see it as a trick • Trick is to get the colonists to accept tax through cheaper tea --- • Boston Tea Party --- 1773

  28. INTOLERABLE • Intolerable/Coerecive Acts – 1774 passed to punish Boston • Boston Port Act ---harbor closed until damages paid • Massachusetts charter revoked --- • Forbade town meetings • Quartering Act

  29. What do the French have to do with it • Quebec Act 1774– not meant to punish colonies • Allows for French in Canada to keep “frenchness” – • Colonies --- view it as attempt to create a French threat • View it as attack on Protestants

  30. First Continental Congress • 1774 Committees of Correspondence –act quickly against Intolerable Acts • Bostonians –end all trade with Brits invites other colonies • First CC – 12 of 13 colonies are there • Adams, (Sam and john) Washington and Patrick Henry • Suffolk Resolves– denounce intolerable acts, want colonists organize militia, want all trade suspended

  31. First Continental Congress • Main purpose it to redress grievances • Declaration of Rights • Gave them legal right to assemble • Bill of Rights – established the structure for the Declaration of Independence (preamble, list of grievances, mutual pledge • Called for no importation, no exportation, no consuming • Restated allegiance to the King –just want things fixed • Declare to meet again!!!!!

  32. And the Battle Begins • The Shot Heard Round the World • Lexington and Concord • Ordered to arrest General Gage(new gov of Mass) • Arrest leader of rebellion and prepare • April 1775– 700 Redcoats sent • Seize gun powder and arrest Adams and Hancock • Paul Revere warns militia

  33. Shots were Fired • Minutemen refuse to leave • Concord – Brits forced to retreat by American reinforcements

  34. British Strengths • Money and best navy • More people 7.5 million to 2.5 million • 20,000 slaves Carolinas and GA join Brits (promise of freedom) • Natives (last hope for keeping land hungry colonists out) • Professional Army –hire hessians to help out • Loyalists in colony

  35. Brits Weakness • Distance (communication) • America—large and hard to occupy • British Generals –poor leaders • Provisions poor • France ---long time enemy

  36. America • Outstanding leadership –Washington • Money from France • Strong belief in their cause –moral advantage

  37. American Weakness • Badly organized • Cont. Congress weak and ineffective • Jealousy among colonies • Little metal money (paper money printed =worthless) • Soldiers deserted economic difficulties • Military supplies – • Militia men unreliable

  38. May 10, 1775 • Second Continental Congress • 13 • Not interested in Independence • Decided to go to war –MOST SIGNIFICANT • Washington will lead • Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms –T. Jefferson • Appeal to King • Set plan to raise army • Olive Branch Petition • Reconsider Intolerable

  39. Battles • June 1775 • Bunker Hill --kill 1000 red coats -- • Run out of gunpowder and forced to leave hill • Brits lost many men – • Considered victory • Bloodiest battle of war • British will state we are in state of REBELLION • Aug 23 1775 • Hessians

  40. Declaration of Independence • How does the loyalty shift • Hire hessians • Freedom for slaves if help Brits • Burning of Norfolk • Pains –Common Sense