Rationing • Rationing: Consumers were only allowed to purchase a fixed amount of particular goods. • The OPA issues rationing coupons; • Consumers faced shortages as a result of the war; • Ex. gas, sugar, butter, meat • No new cars were produced after 1942. :
Propaganda • Propaganda – A biased communication designed to persuade an audience to think or behave in a certain way. • Propaganda is used for a variety of reasons throughout WWII.
Paying for the War Propaganda is used to encourage people to buy war bonds to pay for the war.
The wartime demand for goods ended the Great Depression and unemployment fell.
The War in Europe General Eisenhower talking with troops before D-Day
Europe & North Africa • Battle of the Atlantic • Hitler tries to cut off supplies to Britain • U.S. organizes convoys of cargo ships, with navy support, to get supplies safely across the Atlantic • The Eastern Front • Hitler invades the Soviet Union in 1941; • Stopped by cold weather • Battle of Stalingrad (1942) • Stalingrad was a major industrial center; • Luftwaffe bomb, city burns, hand-to-hand combat • Soviets hold out till winter, then counter-attack • Germans surrender Jan. 1943 – a major turning pointin the war
Naval ships and planes gave support to convoys traveling through the Atlantic.
Europe & North Africa • Stalin pressures FDR/Churchill to open a second front in Western Europe • Instead, Allies invade N. Africa led by Gen. Eisenhower • Afrika Corps, led by Gen. Rommel, surrender May, 1943. • Italian Campaign (p. 573), read and answer: • Why do you think FDR/Churchill agreed to only accept unconditional surrender by the Axis powers? • What happened to Mussolini? • Describe what happened at “Bloody Anzio.”
D-Day: The Invasion of Normandy • In 1943, the Allies began making plans to invade France; • Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhowercommanded the invasion forces; • The Allies choose to strike on the coast of Normandy, in northwestern France
D-Day, cont. • Code Name: Operation Overlord • June 6, 1944– U.S., British and Canadian forces storm the beaches of Normandy; • Troops are met with machine guns, rockets and cannon fire; • Heavy losses are sustained; • 2,700 American troops lost • Allies retake Paris within a month • Gen. Patton – led army forces • Gen. Omar Bradley– led air forces
Journal Write • You are a soldier preparing to launch onto the beaches of Normandy. • What are you thinking? • What have you done to prepare? • What fears do you have as you are about to launch?