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Fighting In France. By: Laura Stokes Jesus Daal Alec John. Objectives. Identify and explain how the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations led to another war. Determine why the League of Nations was detested by many people. Identify the US’s contributions to WWI.

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Fighting in france

Fighting In France

By: Laura Stokes

Jesus Daal

Alec John


  • Identify and explain how the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations led to another war.

  • Determine why the League of Nations was detested by many people.

  • Identify the US’s contributions to WWI.

  • Understand how the style of war changed from traditional to modern.

Bolshevik revolution
Bolshevik Revolution

  • The Bolshevik Revolution happened in 1917

  • The revolution allowed Russia to pull out of WWI

    • Freed thousands of Germans to fight the Western front in France

    • US fight for “democracy”

German spring offensive
German Spring Offensive

  • Spring 1918: 500,000 German Huns advanced forward towards France

    • Able to move fast because they moved with very few arms and supplies

  • Heavy bombing of Allied lines

  • Krupp Canons shot over 180 shells at Paris from over 74 miles away

    • One of their greatest strengths and weakness

  • 30,000 US troops along with French Marshal Foch sent to stop the taking of Paris

    • First American engagement in an European war

German withdraw
German Withdraw

  • By July 1918, one million German soldiers had died

  • Second Battle of the Marne

    • Where: Aisne-Marne Sector (75 miles northeast of Paris)

    • When: July 15 - September 16, 1918

    • What happened: German Erich von Ludendorff attacked Marne but were unsuccessful. Foch organized a counterattack

    • Casualties: 120,000 Allied, 170,000 German

    • Importance: Started the German withdraw

Meuse argonne offensive
Meuse-Argonne Offensive

  • When: September 26 – November 11, 1918

  • Where: North and Northwest of Verdun

  • Who: General John J Pershing

  • Goal: Cut German railroad lines to Western front

  • Importance: Biggest operation/victory of American Expeditionary Force in WWI

  • Outcome: 10% of American army injured or dead

German surrender
German Surrender

  • On the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, Germany surrendered to Allied Forces

  • US Contributions: foodstuffs, munitions, credits, oil, and manpower

    • Endless amounts of US troops demoralized the Germans

The moral leader
The “Moral Leader”

  • Woodrow Wilson was the “moral leader” of WWI

  • In Congressional Elections of 1918, he appealed for a Democratic victory.

    • Republican majority was the turn out

  • Republicans angered because Wilson went to Europe

    • No president had ever traveled to Europe before

Paris conference
Paris Conference

  • The conference convened in Paris on January 18, 1919

    • 32 countries attended (Germany was not invited)

    • The major decisions were made by the Big Four — David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Wilson

    • Wilson took every opportunity to advance his Fourteen Points, in particular his cherished proposal for an association of nations. The others held greater concern for their nations’ security in the future than for Wilson’s idealism.

Fourteen points
Fourteen Points

  • 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").

  • 2. Free navigation of all seas.

  • 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.

  • 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.

  • 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial

  • 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to developher own political set-up.

  • 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.

  • 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine

Fourteen points1
Fourteen Points

  • 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality."

  • 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.

  • 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed forthe Balkan states.

  • 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks inthe old Turkish Empire should govern themselves.

  • 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.

  • 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states

Paris conference1
Paris Conference

  • Some tension causing issues were:

    • The British opposed any move toward freedom of the seas, sought primacy in the Middle East and hoped to take control of a number of German colonies

    • France made no secret of its commitment to regain Alsace and Lorraine

    • Italian nationalists raised the cry of “Italia Irredenta” (Italy Redeemed) as the slogan for their drive for primacy in the Adriatic

    • The Japanese wanted German holdings in the Shantung Peninsula of China as well as a number of German islands

    • Russia wanted Constantinople, but didn’t receive it because of the earlier treaty the Bolshevik government made with Germany

League of nations
League of Nations

  • At the Paris Conference, Woodrow Wilson wanted an association of the world’s countries

  • The League of Nations would be an assembly with seats for all nations and a council to be controlled by the great powers

    • Goals: disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global welfare

    • February 1919: League Covenant created

    • Strengths: 42 initial members (moved up to 60 in the 30’s), Britain and France were “leaders”, could impose economic sanctions, arbitration

    • Weaknesses: No army, US and Russia weren’t members, poor organization, never agreed on decisions

League of nations1
League of Nations

  • “The League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out.”

    • Benito Mussilini

League of nations controversy
League of Nations Controversy

  • Irish-Americans, isolationists, liberals detested

  • Republicans had great animosity towards the League of Nations

    • They claimed it would never be approved because US didn’t want involvement with Europe

  • This delighted Allied adversaries in Paris who now had a stronger bargaining power because Wilson wanted to protect American interests by changing the Covenant

Class activity
Class Activity

  • After watching the video and discussing the political cartoons, decide and explain whether the League of Nations was or was not successful.

  • League of Nations

Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles


  • The following land was taken away from Germany : Alsace-Lorraine (France), Eupen and Malmedy (Belgium), Northern Schleswig (Denmark), Hultschin (Czechoslovakia), West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (Poland)

  • The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany.

  • Japan kept economic holdings in Shandong

    • Pledged to return to China later

  • The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.

  • Germany had to return land to Russia taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

    • Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. Poland also received some of this land.

Treaty of versailles1
Treaty of Versailles


  • Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men

    • Allowed 6 naval ships

    • Not allowed: air force, tanks, submarines,

  • The west of the Rhineland and east of the Rhine River was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ).

    • No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone

  • The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.

Treaty of versailles2
Treaty of Versailles


  • Loss of vital industrial territory

    • Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss

  • Reparations

  • Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria, an attempt to keep economic potential to a minimum

Treaty of versailles3
Treaty of Versailles

Three vital clauses:

  • Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war

  • German had to pay reparations since they were responsible for the war.

    • The bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done

    • Payment could be in kind or cash

    • The figure was not set at Versailles. The Germans were told to write a blank check, which the Allies would cash when it suited them. The figure was eventually put at $32 billion

  • League of Nations was to be created to keep the peace

German reaction
German Reaction

  • Called the treaty the Diktat (dictation)

  • Germans weren’t involved with the creation of the treaty

    • Left mood of anger throughout Germany

    • Fourteen Points left out

  • Many didn’t approve of the treaty but were forced to sign it

    • “November Criminals”

  • In last attempt of defiance, the German navy sank itself

  • Many German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August 1914 as it was the government that had declared war not the people.

  • Satisfied the "Big Three" as in their eyes

    • Kept Germany weak yet strong enough to spread communism

Revolutionized war
Revolutionized War



  • Red Baron

  • Zeppelins

  • Ace Pilots (5 victories)

Presidential election of 1920
Presidential Election of 1920 and Mustard Gas

  • Republicans:

    • President Canidate: Warren G Harding

    • VP: Calvin Coolidge

    • Appealed to Pro-League and Anti-League Parties

  • Democrats:

    • President: James M Cox

    • VP: Franklin D. Roosevelt

    • Pro-League Party

Presidential election of 19201
Presidential Election of 1920 and Mustard Gas

  • Warren Harding won the election

    • Leads to the fall of the League of Nations

Modern connection
Modern Connection and Mustard Gas

  • Israeli Palestinian Conflicts

    • Peace never met; anger and tension

  • Security Treaty (US and Britain protect France)

    • World’s police

  • “Modern” Warfare

    • Technology, total destruction, civilians

  • League of Nations

    • Similar to the UN