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Ch 18. Practical Applications of Immunology. SLOs on Vaccination and Diagnostic Immunology. Define vaccine. Explain why/how it works. Differentiate between attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, subunit, and conjugated vaccines. Provide examples.

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Ch 18

Practical Applications of Immunology

slos on vaccination and diagnostic immunology
SLOs onVaccination and Diagnostic Immunology

Define vaccine. Explain why/how it works.

Differentiate between attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, subunit, and conjugated vaccines. Provide examples.

Compare and contrast the production of whole-agent vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and DNA vaccines.

Define adjuvant.

Explain value of vaccines, and discuss acceptable risks.

Explain how antibodies are used to diagnose disease.

Define monoclonal antibodies, explain how they are made, and identify their advantage over polyclonal antibodies.

Differentiate between precipitation and direct and indirect agglutination.

Explain neutralization.

Compare and contrast direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests.

Explain how direct and indirect ELISA tests work.




Vaccine History: from

  • Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox virus (18th century).


  • Vaccination: Edward Jenner developed modern practice of vaccination when he inoculated people with cowpox virus to protect them against smallpox virus.

From Variolation to Vaccination


herd immunity
Herd Immunity

Large proportion of group resistant  whole group resistant

Effective vaccination programs: 90% vaccinated  no spread of disease

Factors affecting herd immunity

  • Environment (rural vs. city life)
  • Individual’s immune system

Herd immunity animation

…and another

types of vaccines and their characteristics
Types of Vaccines and Their Characteristics

Attenuated whole-agent: microbial agent ______________  generally provides lifelong immunity

Inactivated whole-agent: Bacteria or viruses ___________

Subunit vaccines: include recombinant and toxoid vaccines

Conjugated vaccines combine desired ag with protein to boost immune response

DNA vaccines (= genetic immunization) stimulate humoral and cellular immunity; thermostable; easy to produce. In clinical trials.


vaccine effectiveness and safety
Vaccine Effectiveness and Safety
  • Can you get the disease from being vaccinated?
  • Will you definitely NOT get the disease if you are vaccinated?
  • MMR and autism?
  • Adjuvants improve effectiveness of some antigens. Exact mechanism unknown. Known to activate TLRs. In US only Alum in use. More info on CDC website.
  • Preservatives: ThimerosalMore info on CDC website
brief history review
Brief History Review:

Paralytic poliomyelitis (caused by any of three serotypes of the polio virus)

  • Mid 1950s – Salk vaccine (inactivated virus)
  • 1962 – Sabin vaccine (attenuated virus)
  • Salk vaccine is safer but no mucosal immunity
  • Sabin vaccine provides herd immunity
development of new vaccines
Development of New Vaccines
  • Economic perspective
  • More and more recombinant vaccines
  • Oral often more desirable
  • Plants can be used to make vaccines – directly eating plant OR extract proteins from plant.
  • “Reverse vaccinology”: Genome analysis predicts protective antigens
principal vaccines used in the us to prevent bacterial diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the US to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans
  • DTaP
    • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid
    • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis
    • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid
  • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis
  • Haemophilusinfluenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein
principal vaccines used in the us to prevent viral diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the US to Prevent Viral Diseases in Humans
  • Smallpox: Live vaccinia virus
  • Poliomyelitis: Inactivated virus
  • Rabies: Inactivated virus
  • Hepatitis A: Inactivated virus
  • Influenza: Inactivated or attenuated virus
  • Measles: Attenuated virus
  • Mumps: Attenuated virus
  • Rubella: Attenuated virus
  • Chickenpox: Attenuated virus
  • Hepatitis B: Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine)

Latest Schedules at

Compare to Table 18.3

diagnostic immunology
Diagnostic Immunology

Tests based on the interactions of antibodies and antigens

These tests determine the presence of antibodies or antigens in a patient.

Sensitivity: Determined by the percentage of positive samples it correctly detects

Specificity: Determined by the percentage of false positive results it gives.

monoclonal antibodies mabs
Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs)
  • Pathogens contain many different antigens (and many more epitopes)  Polyclonal antibody response
  • Monoclonal antibody: single type of antibody directed against one specific epitope. Produced by single B cell clone.
  • Generation of MAbs:Hybridoma production in the laboratory by fusing a cancerous cell with an antibody-secreting plasma cell.
  • The hybridoma cell culture produces large quantities of the plasma cell’s antibodies (monoclonal antibodies).
MAbs are used:

for serological identification (tissue and blood typing)

to measure serum protein and drug levels

to identify infectious agents

to identify andquantify hormones

to prevent tissue rejection

as immunotoxins to treat cancer

Compare to Foundation Fig 18.2

development of new generations of mabs
Development of New Generations of MAbs
  • ChimericMAbs(66% human): Genetically modified mice produce Ab with a human constant region.
  • Humanized mabs(90% human): MAbs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding.
  • Fully human antibodies: MAbs produced from mice with human antigen genes.
  • Bacterial, plant and animal systems under investigation to increase production volumes.
precipitation reactions

Fig 18.4

Precipitation Reactions

Interaction of soluble antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies.

When optimal proportions of antigens and antibodies Lattice formation. Excess of either component decreases lattice formation and subsequent precipitation.

Precipitin ring test performed in small tube.

Immunodiffusion procedures: precipitation reactions carried out in agar gel medium.

agglutination reactions
Agglutination Reactions

Fig 18.5

  • Interaction of particulate antigens and antibodies.
  • May demonstrate either presence of ags or abs
  • Therefore: Diseases may be diagnosed by combining the patient’s serum with a known antigen.
  • Titer: Concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen.
  • Seroconversion: Rising antibody titer (from no antibodies to the presence of antibodies). Antibody levels are now detectable.

Direct agglutination:

  • Abs detect epitopes on large cellular antigens (i.e.: bacteria, RBCs)
  • Indirect or passive agglutination:Adsorb soluble ags onto particles. E.g.: Syphilis test
neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions

Harmful effect of a bacterial exotoxin or virus is eliminated by a specific antibody (antitoxins and virus neutralization)

Fig 18.9

fluorescent antibody techniques
Fluorescent Antibody Techniques

Fig 18.11

  • Use antibodies labeled with fluorescent dyes.
  • Direct fluorescent-antibody tests: identify specific microorganisms.
  • Indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) tests: demonstrate the presence of antibodies in serum.