John Locke Andrea O. Shelby S. Nikita G. Katelynn R. Jordan F. Bethel M. Devika G.
The Life of John Locke • Born August 29, 1632. • Wrington, Somerset , England. • Father was also named John and was a country lawyer. • Father served as a cavalry for the English Civil War. • For the parliamentarian side. • Grew up in a Puritan household. • Mother’s name-Agnes Keene. • Was educated at Westminster school in London. • Admitted into Christ Church, Oxford. • Obtained his Bachelor in medicine in 1674. • Went into exile to Holland because to hide from the king in 1683.
The Life of John Locke cont... • reason for exile was because he was thought to be a part of the Rye House Plot. • upon his return from exile he published, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and The Two Treatises of Government. • He published many and wrote many articles and books. • He died October 28th 1704.
Locke’s View on Government • Government is made to protect rights • General Name Property: everyone joins together to keep and maintain life, liberty, and estates • To secure these rights, establish a government to keep what they want to keep
Locke’s View of Government • If promise of protection of rights is not kept by the government: • Put legislators in war with populace (can refuse to obey the laws) • Abuse power which people had put into their hands if legislators try to gain or give others absolute power over lives, liberties, and estates • A new government can be made in order to secure these rights
State of Nature The State of Nature is the time-period before the establishment of a government and organized societies. For Locke, in the state of nature all men are free "to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature." (2nd Tr., §4). Locke’s background comes from a Christian view and believes that reason teaches "no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, and or property" He felt that the state of nature was peace and that “reason” would be the way it stayed peaceful.
The Social Contract A Social Contract is an agreement among the members of an organized society or between the governed and the government defining and limiting the rights and duties of each. For Locke, he accepted much of Hobbes social contract theory but argued that sovereignty resided in the people for whom governments were trustees and that such government could be legitimately overthrown if they failed to discharge their functions to the people. He attempted to erect effective safeguards against violations of natural law by the government.
Locke’s View on Sovereignty, Rights of Individual, and the Concept of Freedom • Nature of men: state of perfect freedom to do as they wish and do not need approval or consent of others • State of nature = State of equality (Everyone has the same amount of power and authority) • Since everyone is the same, they should be treated the same • State of nature has a law of nature to govern (law) • Law of nature teaches that since all men are the same, no one should harm another’s life, health, liberty • All men are created by God and God has made them into the state of independence and remain independent until they choose to become members of a polital society
Individuals who impacted John Locke • Rene Descartes was a french philosopher that provided Locke with an alternate way of thinking that was not taught at Oxford. Locke adopted Descartes ideas and wrote about them in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. • Robert Boyle was Locke mentor and was the leader of the scientific group at Oxford. He learned about atomism and most of his scientific knowledge from Robert. He also took the words primary and secondary qualities from his mentor. • Thomas Sydenham was a noble english physician that Locke studied medicine with. • Lord Ashley was an english politician and philosopher. Locke became a member of the Shaftesbury household and assisted him in business, political, and domestic matters. This became an important time in Locke life that impacted his outlook on rules and government.
Locke’s Views Applied to US Government and Documents • Direct connection- “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” similar to Locke’s “Life, Liberty, and Property”. • Locke and Jefferson both against monarchy • Locke wrote about freedom, personal rights, and dissolution to Britain • Both Locke and our US government believe that personal liberties and political order can coexist
What happened historically that impacted his thoughts • During the 17th century Europe was falling into the Early Modern era • Europe also started discovering the Americas • The monarchy was only used for ceremonial purposes • the rest of Europe was still stuck in the ‘king” phase.