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Support AB32 GHG Reductions and Save Cost As Well?. Wayne Spittal AWWA CA/NV Section Spring 2008, Hollywood CA. The Issue. Global warming has now been firmly bought to the attention of the general public Internationally

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Support AB32 GHG Reductions and Save Cost As Well?

Wayne Spittal

AWWA CA/NV Section

Spring 2008,

Hollywood CA

the issue
The Issue
  • Global warming has now been firmly bought to the attention of the general public Internationally
  • Water Utilities are particularly exposed, they are high energy users; raw water supplies are affected while simultaneously is customer water demand
  • “The more than 60,000 water systems and 15,000 wastewater systems in the United States are among the country’s largest energy consumers, using about 75 billion kWh/yr nationally —That’s 3 percent of annual U.S. electricity consumption."

Electric Power Research Institute, Energy Audit Manual for Water/Wastewater Facilities, (Palo Alto: 1999), Executive Summary

california energy overview
California Energy Overview
  • Population : 34 million
  • 2004 Total Electricity Use:
    • 271,000 GWh
      • 19% Used for Water
      • or 51 million MWh
  • 2004 Peak Demand:
    • 56,400 MW
  • Annual growth:
    • MWh Consumption – 1.4%
    • MW Peak – 1.65%

Ref: CEC Martha Krebs PhD, Feb 2007

total electricity use per capita
Total Electricity Use Per Capita
  • Californians use almost 50% less electricity than the US average
global warming solutions act of 2006 ab 32
Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32)
  • Establishes first-in-the-world regulatory and market based program to achieve real, quantifiable, cost effective GHG reductions
  • Creates a state wide GHG emission limit to reduce emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 (i.e., the target specified in Executive Order S-3-05)
  • Designates Air Resources Board as state agency charged with monitoring and regulating sources of GHG emissions

Source: “California Climate Policy Landscape,” Shankar B. Prasad, Deputy Secretary for Science & Environmental Justice, California Environmental Protection Agency, September 2006.

california climate change targets
California Climate Change Targets
  • By 2020, California will need to remove ~ 180 million tons of CO2 per year

Typical Power Use in Water Distribution

Up to 95% of energy consumption is used for pumping


Pump Life-Cycle Costs

Electric motors driving pumps are not necessarily efficient

Purchasing decision lead by lowest up from cost, not efficiency

utility energy costs management
Utility Energy Costs Management
  • Standard energy audits generally look for low hanging fruit over the short term including:
    • Elimination of obvious system inefficiencies
    • Negotiation of better electric tariff rates
  • Over the mid to longer term, modelling techniques are then employed to:
    • Improved standard operating procedures (SOPs)
    • Equipment upgrade programs (CIP / master plans)
  • In parallel, progressive utilities are also looking at adaptive optimization to:
    • Maximize performance of assets mix currently available
    • Automate complex decision making processes required to ensure optimum efficiency and water turnover
optimizing water distribution pumping
Optimizing Water Distribution Pumping

Pump scheduling systems so-far have focused mainly on time-of-use kWh and peak kW charge avoidance

However, targeting efficiency for each pump and pump station can also lead to considerable kWh reductions

Each kWh saved also leads indirectly to CO2 and other greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions

Reducing the kWh/MG/ft should therefore be a goal for every water utility in respect of emissions management

Unfortunately static testing of pumps and individual pump upgrades is not enough on its own

The dynamics of a moving system curve means real-time pump selection is required

a new cost minimization tool
A New Cost Minimization Tool
  • Over the last 4 years, Derceto has implemented energy cost optimization systems with leading US water utilities
  • Five key cost reduction techniques were employed
    • Electrical load shifting in time, to maximize utilisation of low cost kWh tariff blocks (time-of-use tariffs)
    • Peak electricity kW demand reduction
    • Energy efficiency improvements from pumps and pumping plants.
    • Utilization of lowest production and chemical cost sources of water.
    • Utilization of shortest path between source and destination
key energy management modules
Key Energy Management Modules

Operator Panel


PC on


SCADA Interface



Primary Database

Current day / real-time


Primary Database

(Live Server)

Data Cleaner


Solver / EPAnet


Operations Simulator


Application Manager



Back-up Database

(Historical Server)

Backup Database




PC on


Water Utility SCADA System

a new energy minimization tool
A New Energy Minimization Tool

Of the 5 techniques employed, energy efficiency improvements produced the most unexpected outcome

The optimizer software used searches for the lowest cost schedules that deliver the required mass balance of water within specified system constraints

Part of the half-hourly adaption routine is to dynamically calculate energy use and cost for each feasible schedule

Part of this calculation is to hydraulic model and compare the feasible schedules. This means overall pump wire-to-water efficiency becomes an important factor.

Selected field results ..


Calculating CO2 Emission Reductions

  • There are many web sites with data freely available on CO2 emissions per kWh (or MWh) used in an area.
  • Once the CO2 pounds (or metric tons) is determined, this is multiplied by the energy saved (MWh)

Water Utility Case Studies

Installed in some of the largest US cities, some operating since 2004


Utility Case Studies – GHG Reduction

Greenhouse gas reductions through efficiency improvements

  • At 3% the US water industry uses approximately $10B of electricity per year to pump water consuming 100 million MWh of electricity (EIA 2006).
  • A reduction of 6% to 9% in this energy consumption through efficiency improvements would therefore lead to saving of 6 to 9 MWh per year.
  • EPA national average CO2 emission is 0.6 metric tons per MWh and for California approx 0.4.
  • The potential annual CO2 reduction through adaptive optimizations is therefore up to 5 million metric tons nationally and up to 2 million metric tons in California
  • This is a significant step forward in achieving CARB’s objectives for its AB32 responsibilities with water utilities
  • And adaptive optimization is cost effective (2-4 year payback)