Chapter 9: Drugs. Narcotics, Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens, oh my!!!!. Anabolic steroids Analgesic Confirmation Depressant Drug Hallucinogen Microcrystalline test. Narcotic Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Screening tests Stimulant. Vocabulary.
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Chapter 9: Drugs • Narcotics, Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens, oh my!!!!
Anabolic steroids Analgesic Confirmation Depressant Drug Hallucinogen Microcrystalline test Narcotic Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Screening tests Stimulant Vocabulary
What is a DRUG ???? • A drug can be defined as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other higher order animals.
Why do people take drugs? • Necessity for sustaining and prolonging life • Provide an escape from the pressures of life • A means of ending life
Why study drugs in forensics? • 90 million Americans drink alcohol regularly with 10 million hopelessly addicted • Today, approximately 23 million people in the US are users of illicit drugs. • ½ million heroin addicts and nearly 6 million users of cocaine • 75% of evidence now being evaluated in crime labs is drug related.
Psychological dependence – the conditioned use of a drug caused by underlying emotional needs Drug DependencePsychological vs. Physical
Drug DependencePsychological vs. Physical Physical dependence – physiological need for a drug that has been brought about by regular use. Characterized by ‘withdrawal sickness’
Withdrawal sickness or abstinence syndrome • Refer to page 235 in your text book • Table 9-1 categorizes some of the more commonly abused drugs according to their effect on the body. See page 236
Society and the Law • The first drugs to be regulated by the law in the early years of the 20th century were those deemed to have “habit-forming” properties. • Aimed primary at opium and derivatives, cocaine, and later marijuana
Society and the Law • The question of how to define and measure a drug’s influence on the individual and the danger it poses for society is difficult to assess. 1. What is the interaction of the drug with the person? 2. What is the impact on society?
The social impact of drug dependence is directly related to the extent to which the user has become preoccupied with the drug. To what extent has the drug use become interwoven in the fabric of the user’s life??
Types of Drugs • Narcotics • Hallucinogens • Depressants • Stimulates • Club Drugs • Anabolic Steroids
Narcotic • Derived from the Greek word narkotikos, which implies a state of lethargy or sluggishness. • Pharmacologists classify as substance that brings relief from pain and produces sleep. • They are analgesics – relive pain by exerting a depressing action on the central nervous system (CNS)
Narcotic Unfortunately, ‘narcotic’ has come to be popularly associated with any drug that is socially unacceptable. This confusion has produced legal definitions that are at variance with the pharmacological actions of many drugs. Examples: marijuana and cocaine
Narcotic • Source of most analgesic narcotics is opium. This is a gummy, milky juice exuded through a cut made in the unripe pod of the poppy. It is brownish in color and has a morphine content from 4- 21%
Papaver somniferium aka ‘The Poppy’ • Kingdom: Plantae • Division: Magnoliophyta • Class: Magnoliopsida • Order: Ranunculales • Family: Papaveraceae • Genus: Papaver • Species: P. somniferum
Morphine Morphine C17H18NO3
Morphine can be used as an analgesic to relieve: pain in myocardial infarction pain in sickle cell crisis pain associated with surgical conditions, pre- and postoperatively pain associated with trauma severe chronic pain, e.g., cancer pain from kidney stones (renal colic, ureterolithiasis) severe back pain Morphine can also be used: as an adjunct to general anesthesia in epidural anesthesia or intrathecal analgesia for palliative care (i.e., to alleviate pain without curing the underlying reason for it, usually because the latter is found impossible) as an antitussive for severe cough in nebulized form, for treatment of dyspnea, although the evidence for efficacy is slim. Evidence is better for other routes. as an antidiarrheal in chronic conditions (e.g., for diarrhea associated with AIDS, although loperamide (a non-absorbed opioid acting only on the gut) is the most commonly used opioid for diarrhea).
Morphine side affects: • Constipation • Addiction • Tolerance • Withdrawal
Heroin • The German drug company Bayer named its new over the counter drug "Heroin" in 1895. The name was derived from the German word "heroisch" (heroic), due to its perceived "heroic" effects upon a user. However, it was chiefly developed as a morphine substitute for the coughs that did not have its addictive side-effects. Morphine at the time was a popular, but addictive recreational drug, so Bayer wanted to find a similar, but non-addictive substitute to market. However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of dependence amongst its users.
Codeine or methylmorphineC18H21NO3 • While codeine can be extracted from opium, most codeine is synthesized from morphine through the process of O-methylation. It was first isolated in 1832 in France by Jean-Pierre Robiquet. • The conversion of codeine to morphine occurs in the liver and is catalysed by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6 • Approximately 6–10% of the Caucasian population, 2% of Asians, and 1% of Arabs are "poor metabolizers"; they have little CYP2D6, and codeine is less effective for analgesia in these patients.
Opiates (pg. 239) • Synthetic drugs (not naturally derived) which have similar physiological effects on the body as the opium narcotics. OxyContin Methadone
OxyContin OxyContin is the brand name of a time-release formula of oxycodone produced by the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1995 and first introduced to the U.S. market in 1996. By 2001, OxyContin was the best-selling non-generic narcotic pain reliever in the U.S.; 2008 sales in the U.S. totaled $2.5 billion. An analysis of data from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration found that retail sales of oxycodone "jumped nearly six-fold between 1997 and 2005.“
Critics have accused Purdue Pharma of putting profits ahead of public interest by applying "significant political pressure" to attempt to reverse South Carolina's requiring prior approval before a person with Medicaid can receive the drug; for "fail[ing] to adequately warn consumers of the risks" of OxyContin such as dependence; and for promoting the drug "aggressively" and by means such as "promotional beach hats, pedometers and swing-music CDs."
In May 2007 Purdue Pharma "agreed to pay $19.5 million" in fines relating to aggressive off-label marketing practices of OxyContin in 26 states and the District of Columbia. In specific, the company encouraged dosing more frequent than the recommended interval of 12 hours, and did not fully disclose the risk of hazardous or harmful use.
Later in May 2007 Purdue Pharma and three of its top executives pleaded guilty in a Virginia federal court to charges that they misbranded OxyContin by representing it to have "less euphoric effect and less abuse potential" than it actually has, and by claiming that people taking the drug at low doses could stop taking it suddenly without symptoms of withdrawal. The FDA had not approved these claims. The company and the executives were to pay $634 million in fines for felony and misdemeanor misbranding
In October 2007, officials in Kentucky filed a lawsuit against Purdue Pharma for misleading health care providers and consumers "regarding the appropriate uses, risks and safety of OxyContin"; as of mid-2008, however, the case had been "consolidated with other lawsuits into a single multi-litigation suit" in a federal court in New York.
Turn to page 261 Answer questions 7-12
Hallucinogens • Drugs that can cause marked alterations in normal thought processes, perceptions, and moods. Examples: Marijuana, LSD, PCP, Ecstasy
Marijuana: Perhaps the most popular and controversial member of the hallucinogens • Qualifies as the most used illicit drug used in the US today • More than 43 million Americans have tried it and half of that number may be regular users. (according to latest surveys)
Marijuana Preparation derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L
Marijuana • Preparation normally involves crushed leaves with proportions of seed, stem and flower. • Plant secretes sticky resin known has hashish
Marijuana • Potent form is known as sinsemilla. This is made from the unfertilized flowering tops of the female plant.
Marijuana • Grows 5-15 feet • Characterized by an odd number of leaflets on each leaf. Each usually having 5-9 leaflets, all having serrated or saw-toothed edges. • Potency (THC content) depends on its form: Loose vegetation 3-4.5 % Sinsemilla 6-12% Hashish 2-8% Liquid hashish 8-22%
Marijuana • Turn to page 240 for history • Show “Hemp for Victory”
Marijuana • Was not until 1964 that THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was isolated the chemical substance that was responsible for the hallucinogenic properties • THC is mostly found in the resin, flowers, and leaves
Potential Medical Use • Two promising areas of research are marijuana’s reduction in eye pressure in glaucoma and lessening nausea caused by powerful anticancer drugs.
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act Regulates labeling of products containing certain drugs including cocaine and heroin 1914 Harrison Narcotics Tax Act Regulates opiates and cocaine 1937 Marihuana Tax Act Criminalizes marijuana 1964 Convention on Narcotics Treaty to control marijuana 1970 Controlled Substance Act Scheduling list for drugs Marijuana Timeline
Other Hallucinogens Lyseric acid diethylamide (LSD) • Synthesized from lyseric acid, a substance derived from ergot, which is a type of fungus that attacks certain grasses and grains (rye). (1938) • 1st described by Swiss chemist Albert Hofman after he accidentally ingested, 1943. • Very potent, 25 micrograms, enough to start vivid visual hallucinogens that can last 12 hours. • Mood swings, anxiety, tension. Prone to flashbacks.
LSD A single dose of LSD may be between 100 and 500 micrograms — an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand. Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms of LSD. Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of most drugs, both recreational and medicinal, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram. For example, an active dose of mescaline, roughly 0.2 to 0.5g, has effects comparable to 100 µg or less of LSD.
LSD • LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. LSD's psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical. The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943, when Dr. Hofmann ingested 250 µg of LSD. He hypothesized this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated. Sandoz Laboratories introduced LSD as a psychiatric drug in 1947
LSD • Beginning in the 1950s the US Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named Project MKULTRA. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions, usually without the subject's knowledge. The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report in 1975. • In 1963 the Sandoz patents expired on LSD. Also in 1963, the US Food and Drug Administration classified LSD as an Investigational New Drug, which meant new restrictions on medical and scientific use. Several figures, including Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Al Hubbard, began to advocate the use of LSD. LSD became central to the counterculture of the 1960s. On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States. The last FDA approved human study with LSD, for use in dying cancer patients, ended in 1980. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993. Today, medical research is resuming around the world.
Phencyclidine (PCP) • Synthesized by rather simple chemical process which has led to the increase of abuse. • Clandestine Laboratories (see Fig. 9-5) • Mixed with other drugs such as LSD or amphetamines and sold as powder hence ‘Angel Dust’
PCP • Following oral intake (1-6 milligrams) user feels strength and invulnerability, along with dreamy detachment. • Follows with unresponsiveness, confusion, agitation, depression, feelings of isolation, audio/visual hallucinations and sometimes paranoia.
Depressant A substance used to depress the functions of the central nervous system. Depressants calm irritability and anxiety and may induce sleep
Depressants • Alcohol • Barbiturates • Tranquilizers • ‘Glue Sniffing’