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Stream Order. Stream Order Characteristics. First Order . Second Order. Wider- maybe jump, can throw More water Warmer water More fish diversity Larger fish size Brown trout tolerate temps (prefer low light) Sculpins , shiners, daces, fallfish Can stock rainbows. Very small

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stream order characteristics
Stream Order Characteristics

First Order

Second Order

Wider- maybe jump, can throw

More water

Warmer water

More fish diversity

Larger fish size

Brown trout tolerate temps (prefer low light)

Sculpins, shiners, daces, fallfish

Can stock rainbows

  • Very small
  • Cold, clear, clean
  • Can jump across them
  • Start from springs, groundwater
  • Forested, rocky, steep
  • Brook trout (PA State fish), only native inland trout, prefer cold, very skittish
pa annual precip
PA Annual Precip.
  • Pennsylvania receives an average of ______ inches of precipitation each year. Where does that water go?
  • The total must equal _____.
  • Evaporation & transpiration ____ inches
  • Run off ____ inches
  • Percolation ____ inches
  • Total _____ inches

41 inches

41 inches




41 inches

land cover
Land cover
factors determining forests
Factors Determining Forests
  • Temperature, Rainfall and Topography
  • Plant hardiness zones become harsher as one progresses further north in latitude or higher in elevation
  • Elevation, slope and the direction a slope faces all effect the microclimate for plants on any site
  • Water and eroding soil both move down slope with gravity= deeper and moister at the base of the slope
  • South facing slopes receive more direct sunlight than north facing = warmer and drier.
northern hardwood
Northern Hardwood
  • 2nd most common
  • Beech, birch, sugar maple, Canadian hemlock, white pine
  • If in south, then on northern slopes
  • Best area for Wild Black Cherry
  • Understory: moosewood, witch hazel, mountain holly, shadbush (serviceberry)
oak forest
Oak Forest
  • Most of PA
  • Red & white oak, tulip tree, red maple, hickory
  • On ridges white, black, and chestnut oak
  • Dense mountain laurel and black huckleberry
  • In 1904 chesnut blight intro’d in NY, by 1910 PA forests decimated
mixed mesophytic forest
Mixed Mesophytic Forest
  • Southern PA (common in Smoky Mountains)
  • Tuliptree, sugar maple, beech, basswood, red oak, cucumber tree, yellow buckeye, Ohio buckeye, white ash, black cherry
  • Understory: flowering dogwood, pawpaw, umbrella tree, redbud, witch hazel
unique areas
Unique Areas
  • Coastal Plain Forest
    • Near SE Delaware River
    • Sweetgum, willow oak, southern red oak, sweetbay magnolia,
  • Peat Moss Areas
    • Support tamarack, black spruce
    • Due to glaciation
  • Serpentinite rock
    • South central PA
    • Pitch Pine, VA pine, red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak, sassafras
  • Shale & Limestone Barrens
    • Drought tolerant
    • Eastern red cedar, VA pine, Table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, sumac
unique areas1
Unique Areas
  • Beech Maple Forest
    • Western edge of PA
  • Riparian Areas
    • Periodic flooding
    • Sycamore, Silver maples, box elder, American elm, slippery elm black willow, green ash, black ash, black walnut, red maple
  • River birch in east, not west
  • Pumpkin ash only in Lake Erie Swamp forest
soil color
Soil Color
  • Oxidation of iron and manganese
    • Iron- red & yellow
    • Manganese- black mineral
    • Organics- black hummus
  • Aerobic soil is very consistent, while anaerobic is variable, with patterns, and paint-like designs (often rusty)
  • Deeper soils are lighter, yellower, or redder
munsell soil chart
Munsell Soil Chart
  • Three parts
    • Hue (color)
    • Value (light or dark)
    • Chroma (color intensity)
  • Uses: Archeology, crime scenes, carpet manufacturing