Italy from 1815 to 1846 Reforms, Revolt and Reaction 1846-1850. ITALY AND ITS UNIFICATION. TRENDS IN EUROPEAN POLITICS. The Congress of Vienna seeks to restore traditional ways. Conservatism.
A political philosophy based on a belief in individual freedom, equality under law and freedom of thought and religion.
French Declaration of Rights of Man
Liberals called for written constitutions, parliamentary government, and the protection of “natural rights”
American Bill of Rights
Bankers, merchants, lawyers, journalists, university students and intellectuals.
Giving political power to the common people might threaten both liberty and property.
Particularly in France, favored a republic in which all citizens, rich and poor, would be able to vote and to hold office.
devotion to one's national group
Nationalism had wide appeal in 19th century Europe.
It developed among people who has strong ties to:
Metternich hated the liberal ideas proclaimed by the French Revolution.
Despise nationalism, fearing it would cause a war in Europe.
The spirit of nationalism, Metternich feared, could lead to the break-up of the Austrian Empire.
The belief that society could be reshaped according to the ideals of liberty and equality had brought 25 years of revolution, terror and war.
What must be done with the territories that had been part of Napoleon’s empire?
It caused series disagreements among the delegates at the Congress of Vienna. One dispute threatened to involve Europe in another war.
Both Prussia and Russia hoped to gain new lands and agreed to work together to accomplish their goals.
Prussia wanted to take over the German kingdom of Saxony.
Czar Alexander by combining the Polish kingdom by combining the Polish lands that Russia held with those taken by Austria and Prussia in the partitions. The new Polish kingdom will be placed under Russian Control
Britain and Austria, saw the westward of Russia as a threat to the balance of power in Europe.
Metternich declared that he had no fought Napoleon only to give way to the czar.
France gains a voice in the Congress
Prince Talleyrand of France
Joined with Metternich and the British delegate, Viscount Castlereagh in an alliance to oppose Prussia and Russia.
Russia and Prussia backed down and reduced their demands
Russia was granted Finland and a large part of the Polish territories, though less than czar had wanted.
The Concert of Europe maintains Europe stability.
1815 Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain agreed to act together in the future to preserve peace in Europe and to maintain the territorial settlement of the Congress of Vienna.
Quadruple Alliance then it is called Concert of Europe
Metternich turned the Concert of Europe into an agreement to protect absolute monarchy by checking liberal ideas and nationalist movements.
Conservative rules set up spy systems, censored books and newspapers and imprisoned liberals.
British left the Quadruple Alliance but still look part in European conferences.
King Ferdinand VII restored to the throne in 1815, ruled harshly and persecuted liberal reformers
1820, Spanish army officers revolted and forced the king to restore the constitution of 1812.
Members of the Quadruple Alliance sent a French army in 1823 to crush the rebellion. The leaders of the revolt were brutally punished and Ferdinand’s repressive continued.
Hapsburg Austria, the dominant power in Italy, ruled Lombardy and Venetia in the North; and other members of the Hapsburg family ruled Tuscany and Parma.
In the south, Bourbon king rules the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies which included Sicily and the state of Naples.
The Papal states in central Italy were governed by the Pope.
Only the Kingdom of Sardinia the island of Sardinia and the state of Piedmont were ruled by an Italian family, the House of Savoy.
The pope joined other conservative European rulers and denounced the uprisings.
Decembrist uprisings 1825
Nicholas I, new czar
To prevent the spread of liberal ideas, Nicholas imposed rigid censorship and established a secret police force to spy on potential troublemakers
Greece gains independence
First successful national revolution
Greek patriots revolted against rule by 1821
1827 Britain, France and Russia aided and helped the Greeks and independence declared in 1829
Louis XVIII had become king in 1814, he recognized that the French people would not accept a return to absolute monarchy.
He tried to bring back special privileges for the nobility and the clergy.
In July 1830 he ordered censorship of newspaper and put restrictions on voting that took this right from many wealthy bourgeoisie.
Revolts break out in Italy and Belgium
Louise Philippe “citizen king”
They named him the new king.
In 1830 revolution in France touched off revolts in Italy and Belgium
The Concert of Europe, at the urging of France and Britain, arranged a peace settlement that established a constitutional monarchy in Belgium. The Belgians elected a German prince, Leopold I, as their king.
Polish rebels are crushed
The rebels were not united, however, and they lacked the support of the peasants, who wanted land. Russian armies defeated the rebels, and Czar Nicholas I imposed even stricter rule on Poland. Polish nationalist rebellions continued through out the later 1800’s but none succeeded.
Between 1846 and 1848 Europe suffered an economic crisis.
Blaming their governments for their misery, the common people sought reforms
As in 1830, rebellion in France was the spark that set off other revolutions.
Louis Philippe’s rule had never satisfied a large section of the people in France.
Suffered from unemployment and low wages
Attracted to the new reform called socialism
Believed that the government, not private individual should own factories, banks and other business and run them for the whole society.
The Parisians rioted and once again set up barricades for street fighting. Louis abdicated, and the Second Republic was established.
favored in political liberty but not social reform. They were willing only to give all men the right to vote.
Louis Blanc urged the new government to make changes that would benefit the workers.
The cost of the workshop program upset many taxpayers, both peasants and bourgeoisie
The government closed the workshop and the Parisian workers rose in revolt over the loss job. Men and women and children again set up barricades in the streets of Paris.
The assembly changed the constitution to ensure strong government control though it also gave voting rights to all adult males. French voters elected
Louis Napoleon’s conservative rule made him very popular. In 1852 the voters overwhelmingly approved his becoming Napoleon III. The second empire replaced the republic created in 1848
With new pride in their national histories and traditions, Czechs and Hungarians in particular protested against German Domination of the Austrian Empire.
Writers began to write in their own language instead of Latin, German and French they had been taught to use in school.
Less than a month after the February 1848 revolution in France, German students and workers in the Austrian capital of Vienna revolted.
They demanded a constitution and an end to feudal practices.
Emperor dismissed Metternich who had become a symbol of repression.
They also abolished serfdom and promised a constitution.
Czech language be used on an equal basis with German in the schools and government.
March 1848 Louis Kossuth a Hungarian patriot led the Hungarians in demanding a greater degree of self-government.
The constitution ended feudal privileges, guaranteed freedom of religion and of the press, and gave all adult male property owners the right to vote.
Hapsburg Austria cleverly took advantage of both its military strength and the differences among the various nationality groups.
The imperial troops bombarded Prague, the Capital of Bohemia. With the help of the Bohemian Germans, the Czechs were suppresed.
Austrian soldiers, mostly peasants, attacked students and workers in Vienna. Thousands were killed as the imperial army retook the city.
When the Austrians led a Croatian army against the Hungarians, Kosuth’s troops pushed them back.
The Hungarians proclaimed Hungary an independent republic.
The new Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph called for help from Czar Nicholas I of Russia.
A Russian army of 130,000 attacked Hungary from the east and by August the rebels had been defeated
Revolts break out in Italy
Although Italian revolutionaries everywhere were defeated, the aims of the Risorgimento persisted.
the right to vote
The end of serfdom