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CHAPTER 11 NERVOUS SYSTEM II. DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. PARTS: BRAIN SPINAL CORD. MENINGES. DURA MATER TOUGH, WHITE, DENSE WHITE CONNECTIVE TISSUE PERIOSTEUM OF SKULL BONES BLOOD VESSELS SOME AREAS PENETRATE BETWEEN BRAIN LOBES

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chapter 11 nervous system ii

CHAPTER 11NERVOUS SYSTEM II

DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

central nervous system

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PARTS:

BRAIN

SPINAL CORD

meninges

MENINGES

DURA MATER

TOUGH, WHITE, DENSE WHITE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

PERIOSTEUM OF SKULL BONES

BLOOD VESSELS

SOME AREAS PENETRATE BETWEEN BRAIN LOBES

DURAL SINUSES (VENOUS BLOOD)

CONTINUES DOWN AROUND SPINAL CORD

EPIDURAL SPACE: BLOOD VESSELS, CONNECTIVE TISSUE,

ADIPOSE TISSUE

ARACHNOID MATER

THIN, WEB-LIKE

NO BLOOD VESSELS

ON BRAIN BUT DOESN’T DIP INTO BRAIN

SUBARACHNOID SPACE: CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

PIA MATER

THIN

MANY NERVES AND BLOOD VESSELS TO NOURISH BRAIN & SPINAL

CORD CELLS

ventricles

VENTRICLES

4 INTERCONNECTED CAVITIES IN BRAIN AND BRAIN STEM

CONNECT TO CENTRAL CANAL IN SPINAL CORD

OPENS TO SUBARACHNOID SPACE

CHOROID PLEXUSES:

SPECIALIZED CAPILLARIES OF PIA MATER THAT SECRETE CSF

COVERED BY EPENDYMAL CELLS WHICH FORM A BLOOD-CSF BARRIER

REGULATES CSF COMPOSITION BY FACILLITATED DIFFUSION AND ACTIVE TRANSPORT

slide5

CSF

140 ML FILLS SPACE

PRODUCE 500ML/DAY ????

REABSORBED AT ARACHNOID GRANULATIONS

CLEAR, VISCID

HAS MORE SODIUM AND LESS POTASSIUM & GLUCOSE THAN OTHER EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS

FUNCTIONS:

PROTECTION: ABSORBS FORCE;

NUTRITION;

HOMEOSTASIS: IONIC CONCENTRATION;

REMOVAL OF WASTE;

PROBABLY TELLS AUTONMOMIC SYSTEM WHAT IS HAPPENING

spinal cord

SPINAL CORD

FROM FORAMEN MAGNUM TO 1ST/2ND LUMBAR VERTEBRAE

31 SEGMENTS WITH PAIR OF SPINAL NERVES

THICKENINGS: WHERE? FOR?

CEVICAL ENLARGEMENT

LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT

CONUS MEDULARIS

FILUM TERMINALE TO COCCYX

CAUDA EQUINA

GROOVES:

ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE: DEEP

POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS: SHALLOW

WHITE MATTER ON OUTSIDE/ GREY MATTER ON INSIDE

GREY MATTER: MOSTLY INTERNEURONS, SOME MOTOR NEURONS

WHITE MATTER: 3 DIVISIONS:

ANTERIOR, LATERAL, POSTERIOR FUNICULI: MAJOR NERVE TRACTS

spinal cord1

SPINAL CORD

FUNCTIONS:

REFLEX CENTER

TRANSFER NERVE IMPULSES

reflex arcs

REFLEX ARCS

SIMPLEST: 2 NEURONS

SENSORY RECEPTOR ON DENDRITE OF SENSORY NEURON: AFFERENT

INTERNEURON: CNS: TO OTERH INTERNEURONS OR MOTOR NEURON

MOTOR NEURON: EFFERENT: TO EFFECTOR

EFFECTOR: SPINAL REFLEXES ARE SIMPLEST RESPONSE

reflex

REFLEX

FUNCTIONS:

MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS

AUTOMATIC ACTIONS: SWALLOWING, SNEEZING, COGHING, & VOMITTING

AUTOMATIC RESPONSES TO CHANGE IN STIMULI

SENSORY RECEPTOR SENSORY NEURON  CNS: INTERNEURONS  MOTOR NEURON  EFFECTOR

AFFERENT NEURON  INTERNEURON  EFFERENT NEURON

SPINAL REFLEXES: SIMPLEST

REST TO BRAIN

patellar reflex knee jerk

PATELLAR REFLEX/KNEE-JERK

MONOSYNATPTIC REFLEX: 2 NEURONS: SENSORY-MOTOR

STRIKING PATELLAR LIGAMENT

KEEPS UPRIGHT POSITION WHEN KNEE SAGS

withdrawal reflex

WITHDRAWAL REFLEX

PAIN STIMULI

SENSORY INTERNEURON  MOTOR

SIGNAL TO ONE SET OF MUSCLES TO CONTRACT AND TO ANOTHER SET OF MUSCLES TO RELAX ??

IPSILATERAL FLEXOR CONTRACT/ CONTRALATERAL FLEXOR INHIBITED AND CONTRALATERAL EXTENDER CONTRACT TO TAKE SHIFT IN WEIGHT: CROSSED EXTENSOR REFLEX

ALSO SENDS MESSAGE TO BRAIN ??

FUNCTION??

ascending descending tracts

ASCENDING/DESCENDING TRACTS

USUALLY ALL AXONS IN SAME TRACT ORIGINATE IN SAME PLACE AND TRAVEL TO SAME PLACE

ascending tracts

ASCENDING TRACTS

FASCICULUS GRACILUS & FASCICULUS CUNEATUS: POSTERIOR FUNICULI; SENSORY IMPULSES FROM SKIN, MUSCLES, JOINTS, BONES; INFO FOR TOUCH, PRESSURE AND BODY MOVEMENT; MOST CROSS ??

SPINOTHALAMIC: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR FUNICULI; FROM DIFFERENT BODY REGIONS TO BRAIN; TOCU AND PRESSURE; CROSS OVER

SPINOCEREBELLAR: LATERAL FUNICULI; POSTERIOR UNCROSSED; ANTERIOR CROSSED; FROM LOWER LIMBS AND TRUNK TO CEREBELLUM FOR COORDINATION

descending tracts

DESCENDING TRACTS

CORTICOSPINAL: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR FUNICULI; CROSS OVER; VOLUNTARY MUSCLE MOVEMENTS (SKELETAL MUSCLES); PYRAMIDAL TRACTS

RETICULOSPINAL: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR FUNICULI; SOME LATERAL CROSS, ANTERIOR UNCROSSED; CONTROL MUSCLE TONE AND SWEAT GLANDS; EXTRAPYRAMIDAL TRACTS

RUBROSPINAL: LATERAL FUNICULI; CROSS; MUSCLE COORDINATION AND MAINTENANCE OF POSTURE; EXTRAPYRAMIDAL TRACTS

brain

BRAIN

FUNCTIONS??

OVERSEES FUNCTIONS OF ENTIRE BODY

MEMORY; SENSES/PERCEPTION; HIGHER THINKING

PERSONALITY; EMOTIONS; YOU!!

CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM

cerebrum

CEREBRUM

LARGETS; 2 HEMISPHERES;

CORPUS COLLOSUM

GYRI; SULCHI/FISSURES: DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT PEOPLE

LONGITUDINAL FISSURE

TRANSVERSE FISSURE

LOBES: SAME AS SKULL BONES

FRONTAL: ANTERIOR PORTION; INFRONT OF CENTRAL SULCHUS; ABOVE LATERAL SULCHUS

PARIETAL: BEHIND CENTRAL SULCHUS

TEMPORAL: BELOW LATERAL SULCHUS

OCCIPITAL: POSTERIOR; NO DISTINCT BOUNDARY IN

FRONT; TENTORIUM CEREBELLI: DURA MATER BETWEEN CEREBELLUM

INSULA: DEEP UNDER LATERAL SULCHUS; SEPARATED BY CIRCULAR SULCHUS

cerebrum1

CEREBRUM

CEREBRAL CORTEX: THIN LAYER OF GRAY MATTER ; OUTERMOST LAYER OF CORTEX??

75% OF ALL CELL BODIES

REST: WHITE MATTER: MYELINATED NEURONS; SENSORY/MOTOR/INTERNEURON: PASSING BETWEEN HEMISPHERES OR AREAS OF CEREBRUM

functions

FUNCTIONS

HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: INTERPRETING SENSORY STIMULI; INITIATING VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT; MEMORY; REASONING (USING MEMORY); INTELLIGENCE; PERSONALITY

FUNCTIONAL REGIONS:

SENSORY: INTERPRET SENSORY INFO PRODUCING FELLINGS

ASSOCIATION AREAS: ANALYZE AND INTERPRET SENSORY INFO AND PROVIDE MEMORY, REASONING, VERBALIZING, JUDGEMENT AND EMOTIONS

MOTOR: CARRY INFO TO EFFECTORS FOR PROPER RESPONSE TO SENSORY INFO

sensory

SENSORY

POSTCENTRAL GYRI OF ANTERIOR PORTION OF PARIETAL LOBE ALONG CENTRAL SULCHUS: TEMPERATURE; TOUCH; PRESSURE; PAIN;

POSTERIOR PORTION OF OCCIPITAL: VISION

BASE OF CENTRAL AND LATERAL SULCHI: TASTE

DEEP: SMELL

INFO CROSSES SO???

SIGHT AND HEARING GO TO BOTH SIDES ????

WENICKE’S AREA/SENSORY SPEECH AREA IN PARIETAL LOBE BEHIND LATERAL SULCHUS USUALLY IN LEFT HEMISPHERE: FROM VISUAL AND AUDITORY CORTEX FOR UNDERSTANDING WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE

association

ASSOCIATION

FRONTAL LOBES: HIGHER INTELLECTUAL PROCESSES: CONCENTRATING, PLANNING, COMPLEX PROBLEM SOLVING

PREFRONTAL AREAS: EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR, AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES

PARIETAL LOBES: HELP INTERPRET SENSORY INFO, UNDERSTANDING SPEECH, CHOOSING WORDS OF THOUGHT AND FEELING EXPRESSION, AWARENESS OF THE FORM OF OBJECTS

TEMPORAL LOBES: COMPLEX SENSORY EXPERIENCES TO UNDERSTAND SPEECH AND FOR READING, STORE MEMORIES OF VISUAL SCENES, MUSIC, OTHER COMPLEX PATTERNS

OCCIPITAL LOBES: ANALYZING VISUAL PATTERNS, RECOGNIZING THINGS (PEOPLE)

GENERAL INTERPRETIVE AREA: (WHERE TEMPORAL, PARIETAL AND OCCIPITAL MEET) PROCESSES SENSOPRY INFO FROM ALL 3 ASSOCIATION AREAS, INTEGRATING VISUAL, AUDITORY AND OTHER SENSES FOR INTREPRETATION

motor areas

MOTOR AREAS

FRONTAL LOBES: PRIMARY MOTOR AREAS IN THE CORTEX WITH MANY LARGE PYRAMIDAL CELLS CONTROL MOST OF MOTOR ACTIVITY,

BROCA’S AREA: USUALLY LEFT HEMISPHERE, COMPLEX MUSCLE ACTION FOR SPEECH,

FRONTAL EYE FIELD: VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT OF EYES AND EYELIDS

SEND IMPULSES TO DESCENDING TRACTS

hemisphere dominance

HEMISPHERE DOMINANCE

BOTH INVOLVED IN BASIC FUNCTIONS: RECEIVING AND ANALYZING SENSORY INFO, CONTROLING MUSCLE MOVEMENT ON OPPOSITE SIDE, STORING MEMORIES

ONE SIDE (IN MOST: LEFT) DOMINANT FOR: SPEECH, WRITING, READING, COMPLEX INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONS: VERBAL, ANALYTICAL, COMPUTATIONAL

NON-DOMINANT: NONVERBAL FUNCTIONS: ORIENTATION OF BODY SPACIALLY, UNDERSTANDING MUSICAL PATTERNS, VISUAL EXPERIENCES, EMOTIONAL AND INTUITIVE THOUGHT PROCESSES,

memory

MEMORY

PERSISTENCE OF LEARNING

WORKING/SHORT TERM MEMORY: ELECTRICAL, ONLY THERE AS LONG AS NEURONS ARE CONNECTED

LONG TERM: CHANGES STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF NEURONS TO ENHANCE TRANSMISSION, CAN MAKE LIMITLESS SYNATIC CONNECTIONS, SOME OF WHICH REMAIN UNCHANGED FOR YEARS

memory consolidation

MEMORY CONSOLIDATION

TURNING SHORT TERM INTO LONG TERM

LONG TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION: REPEATED STIMULATION STRENGTHENS CONNECTION

HIPPOCAMPUS

AMYGDALA: ASSIGNS VALUE TO MEMORY

basal nuclei

BASAL NUCLEI

MASSES OF GREY MATTER DEEP IN CEREBRUM

CAUDATE NUCLEUS, PUTAMEN, GLOBUS PALLIDUS

PRODUCE DOPAMINE: INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTER

FACILITATE VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT BY INTERACTING WITH MOTOR CORTEX, THALAMUS AND CEREBELLUM

diencephalon

DIENCEPHALON

BETWEEN HEMISPHERES ABOVE BRAINSTEM

GREY MATTER

THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS, OPTIC TRACTS AND CHIASMA, INFUNDIBULUM, POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND, MAMMILARY BODIES, PINEAL GLAND

thalamus

THALAMUS

SELECTIVE GATEWAY FOR SENSORY IMPULSES (ALL BUT SMELL) TO APPROPRIATE AREAS OF CORTEX

CAN RECEIVE INFO FROM ANY PART OF CORTEX

SELECTS WHICH INFO TO SEND BASED ON SYNCHRONIZED ACTION POTENTIALS

hypothalamus

HYPOTHALAMUS

CONNECTED TO CEREBRAL CORTEX, THALAMUS, AND BRAINSTEM

MAINTAINS HOMEOSTASIS BY LINKING NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS:

HEART RATE

ATERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE

BODY TEMPERATURE

WATER & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE

HUNGER

BODY WEIGHT

MOVEMENTS AND SECRETIONS OF STOMACH & INTESTINES

PRODUCTION OF NUEROSECRETORY SUBSTANCES TO TELL PITUITARY GLAND TO REGULATE GROWTH, GLANDS AND REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

limbic system

LIMBIC SYSTEM

CEREBRAL CORTEX, HYPOTHALAMUS, THALAMUS, BASAL NUCLEI, DEEP NUCLEI= LIMBIC SYSTEM

CONTROLS EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE AND EXPRESSION

CAUSING PLEASANT OR UNPLEASANT FEELINGS ABOUT EXPERIENCES AND GUIDES BEHAVIOR FOR SURVIVAL

ALSO INTERPRETS SMELL: WHICH IS WHY SMELL INFLUENCES EMOTIONS

brainstem

BRAINSTEM

CONNECTS BRAIN TO SPINAL CORD

HAS MANY NERVE TRACTS AND NUCLEI (GREY MATTER)

PARTS:

MIDBRAIN

PONS

MEDULAR OBLONGATA

RETICULAR FORMATION*

midbrain

MIDBRAIN

BETWEEN DIENCEPHALON AND BRAINSTEM

MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS AND GREY MATTER FOR REFLEX CENTER

CEREBRAL PENDUNCLES: NOTOR PATHWAYS

SENSORY BUNDLES TO THALAMUS

CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA: 4 NUCLEI: REFLEX CENTERS FOR VISUAL REFLEXES (SUPERIOR) AND AUDITORY REFLEXES (INFERIOR)

RED NUCLEUS: COMMUNICATES WITH CEREBELLUM & SPINAL CORD CENTERS: REFLEXES FOR POSTURE

slide32

PONS

BETWEEN MIDBRAIN AND PONS

DORSAL: NERVES TO AND FROM MEDULA AND CEREBRUM

VENTRAL: MESSAGES FROM CEREBRUM TO CEREBELLUM

CENTER WHICH WORKS WITH MEDULLA FOR BASIC RHYTHM OF BREATHING

medulla oblongata

MEDULLA OBLONGATA

BETWEEN PONS AND MAGNUM FORAMEN

FLOOR OF FOURTH VENTRICLE

NERVES TO CEREBELLUM

ALL ASCENDING AND DESCENDING NERVE FIBERS PASS THROUGH

WHITE MATTER ON OUTSIDE; GREY MATTER IN CENTER FORMING NUCLEI: PASS SENSORY INFO, CROSSOVER

CARDIAC CENTER: INCREASE/DECREASE HEART RATE

VASOMOTOR CENTER: VASOCONSTRICTION: INCREASE BLOOD PRESSURE OR OPPOSITE ACTION

RESPIRATORY CENTER: ADJUSTS RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING, WITH PONS CONTROLS BASIC RHYTHM

COUGHING, SNEEZING, SWALLOWING AND VOMITTING

INJURIES TO MEDULLA: ??

FATAL

reticualr formation

RETICUALR FORMATION

IN MEDULLA, PONS AND MIDBRAIN: NETWORK CONNECTS HYPOTHALAMUS, BASAL NUCLEI, CEREBELLUM AND CEREBRUM

WHEN STIMULATED WAKES UP CEREBRAL CORTEX

DECREASED ACTIVITY= SLEEP

INJURY= COMA

FILTERS SENSORY INFO: KEEPS CORTEX FROM DEALING WITH UNIMPORTANT STIMULATIONREGULATE MOTOR ACTIVITIES SO MUSCLES MOVE EVENLY

INHIBITS/ENHANCES SOME SPINAL REFLEXES

INTENSE CEREBRAL CORTEX ACTIVITY KEEPS PERSON AWAKE

sleep

SLEEP

SLOW-WAVE: NON-REM: DECREASING ACTIVITY OF RETICULAR FORMATION

RESTFUL, DREAMLESS, REDUCED BLOOD PRESSURE AND RESPIRATORY RATE; LIGHT TO HEAVY: 4 STAGES: 70-90 MINUTES

REM: PARADOXICAL SLEEP: SOME BRAIN AREAS ARE ACTIVE; DREAM SLEEP; 5-15 MINUTES; HEART AND RESPIRATORY RATES VARY

cerebellum

CEREBELLUM

BELOW OCCIPITAL LOBES

TWO LATERAL HEMISPHERES: SEPARATED BY FALX CEREBELLI CONNECTED BY VERMIS

WHITE MATTER: ARBOR VITAE WITH GREY MATTER ON OUTSIDE

CEREBELLAR PENDUNCLES: NERVE TRACTS

INFERIOR: SENSORY INFO ABOUT POSITION OF BODY PARTS

MIDDLE: FROM CEREBRAL CORTEX ABOUT DESIRED POSITION OF BODY PARTS

SUPERIOR: MOTOR IMPULSES TO MOVE BODY TO APPROPRIATE POSITION: INCORPORATES OTHER BRAIN AREAS

FOR COORDINATION AND BALANCE, EQUILIBRIUM (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS)

peripheral nervous system

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

NERVES THAT BRANCH FROM CNS

CRANIAL NERVES

SPINAL NERVES

2 PARTS:

SOMATIC:

CNS TO SKIN, & SKELETAL MUSCLES: CONCIOUS

AUTONOMIC:

CNS TO VISCERA: SUBCONCIOUS

peripheral nerves

PERIPHERAL NERVES

FASCIA

EPINEURIUM:

AROUND WHOLE NERVE; DENSE; COLLAGENOUS FIBERS

PERINEURIUM:

SURROUNDS FASCICLE; LOOSER CONNECTIVE TISSUE

ENDONEURIUM:

LOOSER CONNECTIVE TISSUE; INDIVIDUAL NEURON

BLOOD VESSELS IN EPINEURIUM AND PERINEURIUM BECOME CAPPILLARIES IN ENDONEURIUM ??

nerve classification

NERVE CLASSIFICATION

SENSORY

MOTOR

MIXED

CRANIAL NERVES

SPINAL NERVES

subdivisions of nerve fibers

SUBDIVISIONS OF NERVE FIBERS

IN BRAIN OR SPINAL NERVES:

GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS:

MOTOR IMPULSES TO SKELETAL MUSCLES

GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT FIBERS

TO SMOOTH MUSCLES OR GLANDS

GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS

FROM SKIN OR SKELETAL MUSCLES TO CNS

GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS

FROM BLOOD VESSELS AND INTERNAL ORGANS TO CNS

specialized cranial nerve fibers

SPECIALIZED CRANIAL NERVE FIBERS

SPECIAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS:

MOTOR IMPULSES TO MUSCLES FOR CHEWING, SWALLOWING AND SPEAKING

SPECIAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS:

SENSORY FROM OLFACTORY AND TASTE

SPECIAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS:

SENSORY FROM SIGHT, HEARING, AND EQUILIBRIUM

cranial nerves

CRANIAL NERVES

HOW MANY?

12 PAIRS

ALL BUT FIRST 2 FROM BRAINSTEM

SEE HANDOUT

slide44

http://hicheeky.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cranial_nerves_netter.jpg?w=527http://hicheeky.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cranial_nerves_netter.jpg?w=527

spinal nerves

SPINAL NERVES

HOW MANY:

31 PAIRS

ALL BUT FIRST ARE MIXED

8 PAIRS OF CERVICAL NERVES: C1-C8

12 PAIRS OF THORACIC NERVES: TI-T12

5 PAIRS OF LUMBAR NERVES: L1-L5

5 PAIRS OF SACRAL NERVES: S1-S5

1 PAIR OF COCCYGEAL NERVES C0

cauda equina

CAUDA EQUINA

ADULT SPINAL CORD ENDS????

L2

LUMBAR, SACRAL, AND COCYGEAL NERVES DESCEND TO THEIR EXITS BEYOND THE END

spinal roots

SPINAL ROOTS

EACH NERVE HAS 2 ROOTS

DORSAL ROOT

POSTERIOR: SENSORY

DORSAL ROOT GANGLION:

CELL BODIES

DIRECTION????

DERMATOME: AREA OF SKIN INNERVATED BY SPINAL NERVE

VENTRAL ROOT

ANTERIOR:MOTOR ROOT

CELL BODIES IN GREY MATTER

spinal nerves1

SPINAL NERVES

BOTH ROOTS UNITE TO FORM NERVE

4 BRANCHES

MENINGEAL BRANCH:

BACK INTO VENTRAL CANAL TO MENINGES, BLOOD VESSELS AND INTERVERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS

DORSAL BRANCH:

POSTERIORLY: INNERVATES SKIN AND MUSCLES OF BACK

VENTRAL BRANCH:

MAIN BRANCH, MUSCLE AND SKIN ON FRONT, SIDES AND LIMBS

VISCERAL BRANCH:

ONLY IN THORACIC AND LUMBAR REGIONS, TO ORGANS, PART OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

plexuses

PLEXUSES

IN ALL REGIONS BUT THORACIC AREAS

NEURONS ARE RECOMBINED SO THAT ALL NEURONS GOING TO A PARTICULAR AREA TRAVEL THROUGH THE SAME NERVES EVEN IF THEY COME FROM DIFFERENT SPINAL NERVES

TYPES:

CERVICAL:

IN NECK, BRANCHES FROM C1-C4; TO MUSCLES AND SKIN OF NECK

BRACHIAL:

C5-8 AND T1; TO SHOULDER AREA; 10 DIFFERENT MUSCLES

LUMBOSACRAL:

T12 TO C0; 5 NERVES; LOWER ABDOMEN TO FEET (SCIATIC NERVES: LARGEST/LONGEST)

autonomic nervous system

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

PART OF PNS

AUTONOMOUS??

CONTROLS SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE AND GLANDS

HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, BREATHING RATE, BODY TEMPERATURE AND OTHER HOMEOSTASIC MECHANISMS

general characteristics

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

REFLEXES: START WITH RECEPTORS IN VISCERA AND SKIN THROUGH AFFERENT FIBERS TO NERVE CENTERS IN BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD, TRANSLATED AND INTEGRATED TO CRANIAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVES TO GANGLIA OUTSIDE CNS WHERE MESSAGE IS INTEGRATED; TO EFFERENT FIBERS TO MUSCLE AND BONE

SOME INDEPENDENCE FROM REST OF BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

autonomic nerve fibers

AUTONOMIC NERVE FIBERS

EFFERENT/MOTOR

UNLIKE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 2 NEURONS:

PREGANGLIONIC: CELL BODY IN CNS

POSTGANGLIONIC: CELL BODY IN AUTONOMIC GANGLION; TO EFFECTOR

divisions

DIVISIONS

SYMPATHETIC

PARASYMPATHETIC

sympathetic division

SYMPATHETIC DIVISION

T1-L2

PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS ENTER THE SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA

SYMPATHETIC CHAIN GANGLIA/PARAVERTEBRAL GANGLIA: BOTH SIDES OF SPINAL CORD; UNDER PARIETAL PLEURA & PERITONEUM

SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS: SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA PLUS FIBERS OF CONNECTION

COLLATERAL GANGLIA: GANGLIA CLOSER TO VISCERA

sympathetic division1

SYMPATHETIC DIVISION

FOUND IN T1-L2

PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS EXIT VENTRAL ROOT AND SYNAPSE WITH POSTGANGLIONIC FIBER IN SYMPATHETIC GANGLION NEAR SPINAL CORD, OR TRAVELS ALONG SYMPATHETIC TRUNK TO ANOTHER GANGLION OR TRAVELS TO COLLATERAL GANGLION NEARER THE ORGAN OR GLAND

preganglionic fibers

PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS

MAY SYNAPSE IN PARAVERTEBRAL GANLIA, PASS THROUGH GANGLIA ALONG SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS & SYNAPSE IN OTHER GANGLIA OF TRUNK, OR TO COLLATERAL GANGLIA TO SYNAPSE

slide58

SYMPATHETIC CHAIN GANGLION/PARAVERTEBRAL GANGLION: 2 GROUPS OF GANGLIA IN CHAINS ALONG SPINAL CORD

  • SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS: GANGLIA AND FIBERS OF CONNECTION
  • COLLATERAL GANGLIA: SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA NEARER VISCERA
autonomic neurotransmitters

AUTONOMIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS

PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS OF BOTH DIVISIONS SECRETE ACETYLCHOLINE: CHOLINERGIC FIBERS

POSTGANGLIONIC OF PARASYMPATHETIC: CHOLINERGIC

POSTGANGLIONIC OF SYMPATHETIC: RELEASE NOREPINEPHRINE: ADRENERGIC

TO SWEAT GLANDS AND SOME BLOOD VESSELS ARE CHOLINERGIC

MOST ORGANS ARE INNNERVATED BY BOTH WITH OPOSING ACTIONS

SYMPATHETIC TONE: BLOOD VESSELS ONLY INNERVATED BY SYMPATHETIC ; DECREASING STIMULATION: VASODILATION; INCREASING: VASOCONSTRICTION

autonomic neurotransmitter action

AUTONOMIC NEUROTRANSMITTER ACTION

BIND TO PROTEIN RECEPTOR: ALTERS MEMBRANE: CAUSING SMOOTH MUSCLE TO CONTRACT AND GLAND TO SECRETE

ACETYLCHOLINE BINDS TO 2 RECEPTORS:

MUSCARINIC: IN EFFECTOR CELL MEMBRANES OF ALL POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE FIBERS AND ALL CHOLINERGIC SYMPATHETIC FIBERS;

RESPONSES ARE EXCITATORY BUT SLOW

NICOTINIC: BETWEEN PREGANGLIONIC AND POSTGANGLIONIC OF BOTH; RESPONSES ARE EXCITATORY AND FAST

NOREPINEPHRINE FROM SYMPATHETIC TO ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS

ALPHA

BETA

STIMULATION OF EACH IS EXCITATORY BUT DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT ORGANS, THE OVERALL EFFECT IS DETERMINED BY HOW MANY OF EACH RECEPTOR TYPE ARE IN THE CELL MEMBRANE

ending neurotransmitter action

ENDING NEUROTRANSMITTER ACTION

ACETYLCHOLINE: ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE: RELEASED QUICKLY SO ACETYLCHOLINE USUALLY HAS A SHORT STIMULATION

NOREPINEPHRINE: RE-UPTAKE: ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND INACTIVATED BY MONOAMINEOXIDASE OF MITHOCHONDRIA; TAKES LONGER SO SOME MAY DIFFUSE INTO BLOODSTREAM COULD WORK UP TO 30 SECONDS

control of autonomic activity

CONTROL OF AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY

MOSTLY BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD: LIKE MEDULLA, HYPOTHALAMUS

LIMBIC SYSTEM, CEREBRAL CORTEX: CONTROL DURING STRESS

GANGLIA PROVIDE SOME INDEPENDENCE

ALSO AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CAN AFFECT EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION AND BEHAVIOR

life span changes

LIFE SPAN CHANGES

APOPTOSIS: PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH; BEGINS BEFORE BIRTH; CONTINUES THROUGH LIFE; WHEN IT STOPS DISEASE OCCURS

30: APOPTOSIS INCREASES (SOME STEM CELLS STILL)

RESULTS IN 10% BRAIN SHRINKAGE OVER LIFE; AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS IN DIFFERENT AREAS: MORE IN CEREBRAL CORTEX

DENDRITIC BRANCHES OF CEREBRAL CORTEX DECREASE; SLOWING TRANSMISSION; DECREASING NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ENZYMES TO MAKE THEM; MAY DECREASE 5-10%; DISEASES: STROKE, DEPRESSION, ALZEIMER’S, PARKINSON’S, DEMETIA

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FADING MEMORIES

  • SLOWING REFLEXES AND RESPONSES
  • DECREASING BLOOD PRESSURE
  • 70: ANKLE NERVES CAN’T PICK UP VIBRATIONS AS WELL: LOSS OF BALANCE; POOR EYESIGHT; ANEMIA; INNER EAR MALFUNCTION: POOR BALANCE: MORE FALLS
  • RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER AFFECTED: SLEEP LESS; HARDER TO FALL ASLEEP AND STAY ASLEEP; MOVE MORE; SLOW WAVE AND REM SLEEP DECREASES: NAP MORE