Philosophical Trends Groups Puritans Revolutionaries/Rationalists Transcendentalists
Puritan 1. A member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies of the Church of England. 2. One who lives in accordance with Protestant precepts, especially one who regards pleasure or luxury as sinful.
Puritan Literature Of Plymouth Plantation – William Bradford -an account of the Mayflower Voyage and settlement in the new world (p. 27) A Narrative of the Captivity – Mary Rowlandson -a chronicle of her experiences as a captive of the Wampanoag (p. 39) Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God – Jonathan Edwards -a sermon about retribution at God’s hands (p. 79) The Minister’s Black Veil – Nathaniel Hawthorne -a story about a minister and secret sin (p. 299)
Revolutionary/Rationalist Revolutionary • One participating in open revolt against a government or ruling authority: insurgent • One who holds extreme views or advocates extreme measures: extremist, fanatic Rationalist • the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth • thought based on logic and scientific reasoning
Revolutionary Literature Speech to the Convention –Patrick Henry advocates revolt against England, “Give me liberty or give me death.” (p. 101) The Autobiography: The Declaration of Independence – Thomas Jefferson(p. 115) Arriving at Moral Perfection – Benjamin Franklin his plan for achieving an ethical and discipline life (p. 92, Sayings p. 95, rags to riches belief)
Transcendentalism A literary and philosophical movement, asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality which transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. Truth is whatever an individual judges to be correct out of their own intuition by communicating with nature and searching inside one's self.
Transcendentalist Literature Nature – Ralph Waldo Emerson how nature assuages our troubles by taking us outside of ourselves and reconnecting us to the wonders of divine creation (p. 218) Walden - Henry David Thoreau based on a 2 year experiment in simple living (cutting the clutter out of our lives so we can live more spiritually and with less stress) he proposes that people can find the meaning of their own existence through nature, that it takes self contemplation to see ourselves fully (p. 233)
Research to answer the following questions: • What is their view of God? • What are their values? • How do they define truth? • Do they have an optimistic or pessimistic view of life? • What are their views of work and worldly success? • What is their view of society? • Who is their authority? • What is their view of education? • - Do they view man as inherently good, evil, or somewhere in between? Cite evidence. • - How would your group define the American Dream? Explain.