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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR . Ch. 33. Ethology. The study of animal behavior. Behavior. An action or series of actions performed in response to a stimulus. http://www.kittens-lair.net/store/en/articles/img137.jpg. Stimulus. Something in the environment that causes an organism to respond.

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Ethology
Ethology

The study of animal behavior.


Behavior
Behavior

An action or series of actions performed in response to a stimulus.

http://www.kittens-lair.net/store/en/articles/img137.jpg


Stimulus
Stimulus

Something in the environment that causes an organism to respond.

Ex: sound, smell, color, another animal, prey, predator, mate

http://imagecache.allposters.com/images/pic/PTGPOD/457352-FB~Prairie-Rattlesnake-Crotalus-Viriduis-Posters.jpg


Response
Response

An organism’s reaction to a stimulus

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_YuR6V_Yr7Bk/SblYmJD_28I/AAAAAAAABGA/qyCkiXCHrlE/s320/fear.jpg

http://askdryin.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/sparrow-growls5-600x400.jpg


Innate behavior
Innate Behavior

Natural responses to stimuli that do not depend on learning

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/empiid.jpg


Fixed action pattern
Fixed Action Pattern

Baby cuckoo pushes competing egg out of host parents nest.

(Brood parasitism)

Common Cuckoo being raised

by Reed Warbler

http://jakst.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/brood-parasite-birds.jpg


Learned behavior
Learned Behavior

The development of behaviors through experience.

Chimpanzees learn to use a stick to get termites out of a mound.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.honoluluzoo.org/images/enrich_honzoo_chimp7_small.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.honoluluzoo.org/enrichment_chimps_forage.htm&usg=__woo5vYFOeRCuUml_R-rle0bWnag=&h=224&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=39&um=1&tbnid=oS6_uaJssbkMQM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchimps%2Busing%2Btools%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26sa%3DN%26start%3D20%26um%3D1


http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpghttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg


Imprinting
Imprintinghttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg

Imprinting

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbOOPKBg0iA

An animal develops a particular response to an object or organism only during a brief period early in life.

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ac71586ffcee0400&q=lorenz%20imprinting&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlorenz%2Bimprinting%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&safe=active


Natural selection
Natural Selectionhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg

  • Behaviors that increase an individual’s reproductive success are favored by natural selection.

  • Male lions kill or chase off the cubs of a previous male.

http://www.africanwildlifeguide.com/species-guide/mammals/big-5/lion/image/Small/lion-pride.jpg


Classes of behavior
Classes of Behaviorhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg

  • Foraging

  • Antipredator

  • Cyclic

    • Migration

    • Hibernation

    • Circadian rhythm


Foraging behavior
Foraginghttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg Behavior

Food gathering behavior.

Specialists eat only one or a few things.

Generalists eat many kinds of food.


Antipredator behavior
Antipredatorhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg Behavior

  • Spines

  • Chemical defense

  • Play dead

  • Running fast

  • Form groups

  • Camouflage

  • Where's the Octopus? Aug.5, 2011


Seasonal behaviors
Seasonalhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg Behaviors


Migration
Migrationhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/12/10/gallery/dolphin-sponge-324x205.jpg

Seasonal movement between distant places.

To find better climate, food, mates, place to raise young.


Humpback whales migrate 5,100 miles between their feeding ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Why?


Hibernation
Hibernation ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Animal’s metabolic rate and body temperature drop. Animal becomes inactive for varying amounts of time.

Ex: bats, groundhogs, prairie dogs, ladybugs, box turtles, squirrels, bears


Circadian rhythms
Circadian Rhythms ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

  • A cycle that occurs on a daily basis

  • Internal cycle occurs in almost every animal

  • Body temperature, sleep patterns, activity level

  • Nocturnal - active at night

  • Diurnal - active in daytime


Communication
Communication ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.


  • Communication ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.: any behavior that contains information and involves a sender and receiver.

  • Animals use signals to influence the behavior of other animals.


Types of communication
Types of Communication ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

  • Sight

  • Chemicals

  • Touch

  • Sound

  • Language


Sight
Sight ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Visual signals are fast and easy to produce. Bright colors may scare off a competitor or predator.

http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/animal-camouflage-3.jpg


Chemical
Chemical ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Termites mark their trail with chemicals called pheromones.

http://www.archicentre.com.au/350termites.jpg


Sound
Sound ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Best over large distances.

May signal food or predators or to attract mates.


Reproductive strategies
Reproductive Strategies ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Animals have mating and parenting behaviors to maximize reproductive success.

1. Find and choose mate.

2. May use complex courting behavior or intense competition

3. Either abandon young or provide care.


Territorial behavior
Territorial Behavior ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Defending a portion of habitat against others of the same species.

Competition for food or mates.

Marking territory with scent, sound.

Aggressive displays or fights.

http://pro.corbis.com/images/42-15309507.jpg?size=67&uid=%7BA95BE9DF-7F5A-4D6E-B041-3DF13C91FCF7%7D


Courtship behavior
Courtship Behavior ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Behavior ritual that precedes and leads to mating.

http://www.photobirder.com/Bird_Photos/blue_footed_booby_r128.jpg


Sexual selection
Sexual Selection ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Females prefer a particular trait in males.

That trait may affect the survival of the male.

Female chooses mate!

http://www.itsnature.org/ground/birds-land/the-peacock/


Parental behavior
Parental Behavior ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica.

Protecting young and providing food

Mammals nurse young.

90% of birds give care.

Very few amphibians, reptiles, arachnids, insects


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