War and Peace in Literature and Photography Martin Donohoe http://www.publichealthandsocialjustice.org http://www.phsj.org
Why Literature • Vicarious experience • Explore diverse philosophies • Promotes empathy, critical thinking, flexibility, non-dogmatism, self-knowledge • Encourages creative and ethical thinking • Allows for group discussion/debate • Valuable for educating health professionals
Themes • Honor • Futility • Suffering • Death • Abrogation of Rights • Protest • Peace
Famous Novels of War and Peace • War and Peace, Tolstoy • Red Badge of Courage, Crane • All Quiet on the Western Front, Remarque • Johnny Got His Gun, Trumbo • A Rumor of War, Caputo • A Canticle for Leibowitz, Miller
“The War Prayer”Mark Twain (1835-1910) • Written during the US war on the Philippines • Submitted to Harper's Bazaar (exclusive contract) in 1895 - rejected as "not quite suited to a woman's magazine.“ • “I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth.“ • Published posthumously in 1923
“The War Prayer” Mark Twain (aka Samuel Clemens)
Christopher ColumbusUpon meeting the Arawaks of the Bahamas They…brought us…many…things…They willingly traded everything they owned…They do not bear arms…They would make fine servants…With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.
John Wayne I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from them. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.
William Tecumseh Sherman War is hell.
Alexander Pope Our business in the field of fight, Is not to question, but to prove our might.
Horace Odes (III.2.13) Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country
"Dulce Et Decorum Est"Wilfred Owen, 1917-18 … In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin;
"Dulce Et Decorum Est"Wilfred Owen If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,- My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.
Ernest Hemingway They wrote in the old days that it is sweet and fitting to die for one's country. But in modern war, there is nothing sweet nor fitting in your dying. You will die like a dog for no good reason.
Josef Stalin The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of millions is a statistic.
“Survivors”Siegfried Sassoon, 1917 … No doubt they'll soon get well; the shock and strain Have caused their stammering, disconnected talk. Of course they're "longing to go out again," --These boys with old, scared faces, learning to walk.
“Survivors” Siegfried Sassoon, 1917 They'll soon forget their haunted nights; their cowed Subjection to the ghosts of friends who died, -Their dreams that drip with murder; and they'll be proud Of glorious war that shatter'd all their pride. . . Men who went out to battle, grim and glad; Children, with eyes that hate you, broken and mad.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.
The BibleBook of Matthew All they that take the sword, shall perish with the sword.
Mahatma Gandhi An eye for an eye only makes the whole world blind.
Herbert Hoover Older men declare war. But it's the youth who must fight and die!
Issac Asimov Violence is the first refuge of the incompetent.
Jean-Paul Sartre When the rich wage war, it's the poor who die.
Arthur Ponsonby When war is declared, Truth is the first casualty.
Hermann Goering(at the Nuremberg Trials, shortly before being sentenced to death) Of course the people don't want war. But…it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship . . .
Hermann Goering Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders…All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.
Samuel Johnson Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel
George OrwellNineteen Eighty-Four War is Peace. Freedom is Slavery. Ignorance is Strength.
Benjamin Franklin They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
Will Rogers You can't say that civilization don't advance, however, for in every war they kill you in a new way.
Solomon Short The only winner in the War of 1812 was Tchaikovsky.
Mao Zedong War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of the gun it is necessary to take up the gun.
Albert Einstein A country cannot simultaneously prevent and prepare for war.