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Armando Cosenti n o OPT - Optics and Photonics Technology Laboratory (EPFL) Photonic Crystals EDPO PO-014 2009. Photonic crystal slotted guides. Outline. Introduction: why slots? Conventional slotted waveguides Photonic crystal slotted guides Green cavity project Conclusion. Outline.

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Armando Cosenti n o OPT - Optics and Photonics Technology Laboratory (EPFL) Photonic Crystals EDPO PO-014 2009


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Armando CosentinoOPT - Optics and Photonics Technology Laboratory (EPFL)Photonic CrystalsEDPO PO-014 2009

Photonic crystal slotted guides

outline
Outline

Introduction: why slots?

Conventional slotted waveguides

Photonic crystal slotted guides

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

outline3
Outline

Introduction: why slots?

Conventional slotted waveguides

Slotted photonic crystals

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide4

Introduction

Motivation

Planar integrated photonics

Optics

Physics

Technology

QED

Nonlinear optics

Quantum optics

Quantum dots

Interaction matter-field

Chemical sensing, single atom detection

Application

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide5

Introduction

Motivation

Planar integrated photonics

  • Traditional main limitations in photonic dielectric cavities are due to their size

Photonic crystal slab nanocavities

  • Subwavelength-sized dielectric discontinuities are able to localize strongly the E-field in tiny volumes, that is very narrow slots

Optics

Physics

High Q

Small Veff

Technology

SOI free standing membrane, integrated devices

QED

Nonlinear optics

Quantum optics

Quantum dots

SLOTS: GEOMETRY REALLY MATTERS

Interaction matter-field

  • Empty
  • Infiltrated with micro-fluids (air)
  • Low-index materials

Chemical sensing, single atom detection

Application

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide6

Introduction

Motivation

Planar integrated photonics

Guide and enhance light in low-index material

Photonic crystal slab nanocavities

PhC slotted waveguide

SLOTS: GEOMETRY REALLY MATTERS

Conventional

slotted waveguide

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide7

Figure of merit

The ratio Q/V is the figure of merit in resonant cavities. It determines the strength of the various cavity interactions, and gives an idea of the cavity size.

All the conventional designs conceived so far are not featured by an high Q factor. Neither they are able to enhance the E-field and confine it within a nanometer-sized region.

Thus, the new idea is to exploit dielectric discontinuities (that is slots) in order to merge evanescent tails of guided modes.

But conventional waveguides are tremendously leaky.

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide8

Photonic Crystals

By means of only TIR it is impossible to conceive photonic nanocavities featured by a very high figure of merit - the best would be a cavity surrounded by a 3D-PhC, but the fabrication is still prohibitive.

Thus, despite the vertical radiation leakage it seems better to employ 2D-PhCs W1.

The photonic-bandgap effect gives rise to confinement in the in-plane direction and TIR only concerns the z-direction - Akahane et al. Nature (London) 425, 944 (2003).

A.Di Falco, L.O’Faolain, T.F.Krauss Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 38-41 (2008)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

outline9
Outline

Introduction: why slots?

Conventional slotted waveguides

Slotted photonic crystals

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide10

Conventional slotted waveguides

Evanescent tails merge into high intensity because of the slot discontinuities

High index slabs

Infinite height

Finite height

Low index material/air

V.R.Almeida, Q.Xu, C.A.Barrios, M.Lipson OPTICS LETTERS 29, 1209 (2004)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide11

Conventional slotted waveguides

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based samples

V.R.Almeida, Q.Xu, C.A.Barrios, M.Lipson OPTICS LETTERS 29, 1209 (2004)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide12

Conventional slotted waveguides

Islot(ws=50nm)=6xISi

V.R.Almeida, Q.Xu, C.A.Barrios, M.Lipson OPTICS LETTERS 29, 1209 (2004)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide13

Ultrasmall mode volume in microcavities

J.T.Robinson, C.Manolatou, L.Chen, M.Lipson Phys.Rev.Lett. 95, 143901, (2005)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide14

Ultrasmall mode volume in microcavities

SLOT

NO SLOT

J.T.Robinson, C.Manolatou, L.Chen, M.Lipson Phys.Rev.Lett. 95, 143901, (2005)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

on chip gas detection
On-chip gas detection

Limited bending losses (lower than 11dB/cm)

J.T.Robinson, L.Chen, and M.Lipson OPTICS EXPRESS 16, 4296 (2008)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

outline16
Outline

Introduction: why slots?

Conventional slotted waveguides

Slotted photonic crystals

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide17

Band diagram

A.Di Falco, L.O’Faolain, T.F.Krauss Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 38-41 (2008)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide19

Width modulation

T.Yamamoto, M.Notomi et al. OPTICS EXPRESS 16, 13809 (2008)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide20

Chemical sensing: heterostructured devices

Sensitivity maximization:S=/n

Red lines and yellow shade

n=1

Black lines and gray shade

n=1.315

SEM inspection reveals slots non-uniformity (narrower in the center with a variation up to 10%)

A.Di Falco, L.O’Faolain, T.F.Krauss Appl.Phys.Lett. 94, 063503 (2009)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide21

Chemical sensing: heterostructured devices

Slot widths

171nm

166nm

152nm

Slot widths

0.2a=98nm

0.3a=147nm

0.4a=196nm

0.5a=245nm

A.Di Falco, L.O’Faolain, T.F.Krauss Appl.Phys.Lett. 94, 063503 (2009)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

quantum and nonlinear optics
Quantum and nonlinear optics
  • Interaction matter-field
  • Second harmonic generation (SHG)
  • Optical parametric amplification on integrated photonics (OPA)

A.Di Falco, C.Conti, G.Assanto OPTICS LETTERS 31, 3146 (2006)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide23

Slotted nanoresonators as PhC nanocavity coupler

F.Foubert, L.Lalouat, B.Cluzel, et al. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 94, 251111 (2009)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

outline24
Outline

Introduction: why slots?

Conventional slotted waveguides

Slotted photonic crystals

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

fabrication access list

E-beam LITHOGRAPHY

PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY

DRY ETCHING

WET ETCHING

Fabrication - access list
  • Vistec EBPG5000,electron beam lithography system
  • Heidelberg DWL200, LASER lithography system
  • EVG150, coater and developer system for positive resist
  • Süss MA6/BA6, double side mask aligner and bond aligner
  • Süss DV10, developer for mask and thick resists
  • Alcatel 601E, dry etcher, fluorine chemistry
  • Tepla 300, dry etcher, oxygen plasma
  • Oxford PRS900, dry etcher, oxygen plasma
  • Coillard Photolithography, wet bench, resist strip and develop
  • Coillard etching, wet bench, oxide and metal etch
  • Idonus HF VPE-100, wet bench, HF vapor phase etcher
  • Zeiss LEO 1550, SEM

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide26

Green cavity project

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide27

Green cavity project

Courtesy of Vincent Paeder, OPT - Optics and Photonics Technology Laboratory (EPFL)

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

slide28

Green cavity project

E-beam resolutions:

Low-res: 100nm

High-res: 5nm

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides

conclusion
Conclusion

Conventional slotted waveguides

  • Enhancement of e-field amplitude, power and intensity in low-n materials
  • A strong e-field confinement is localized to a nanometer-sized low-n region

Slotted photonic crystals

  • Amazing potentialities of optimization, versatility and functionaliy

Green cavity project

Conclusion

A.Cosentino - PhC slotted guides