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Prosperity and Depression. Unit 2 Chapter 7 The Twenties 1919 – 1929 Chapter 8 The Great Depression Chapter 9 The New Deal. The Twenties 1919 - 1929. Chapter 7. Overview. Computer Lab

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prosperity and depression

Prosperity and Depression

Unit 2

Chapter 7 The Twenties 1919 – 1929

Chapter 8 The Great Depression

Chapter 9 The New Deal


Computer Lab

  • Search for icons of the 1920’s – images and video of art, advertising art and slogans, entertainment, music, sports
  • Google Images, Youtube, etc.
  • Use your book as a guide
  • Place the images and video in PowerPoint.
  • We will assemble all into a single file.
  • One point for each image or video placed in PowerPoint with citation – twenty minimum.
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Explain the impact of Henry Ford and the automobile.
  • Analyze the consumer revolution and the bull market of he 1920’s.
  • Compare the different effects of the economic boom on urban and rural America
terms and people
Terms and People
  • Henry Ford
  • Mass production
  • Model T
  • Scientific management
  • Assembly line
  • Consumer revolution
  • Installment buying
  • Bull market
  • Buying on margin
  • Icons of the Twenties
  • Test, Chapter 7
why it matters
Why it Matters

Remember, after World War I the United States is the largest creditor nation

  • We suffered no damage to the homeland
  • Our losses, relative to our allies, where much less
  • Old Empires were damaged and could not compete economically with the United States

By 1919, United States poised to begin a rapid economic expansion

why it matters1
Why it Matters

Our objective:

How did the booming economy of the 1920’s lead to changes in American life?

why it matters3
Why it Matters

Before the boom, there was a postwar recession and depression to the economy that lasted into 1921 Why?

  • Factories had to shift from war production to peacetime
  • Global markets with demand for U.S. products fell back
  • U.S. troops returned in tremendous surge into the civilian job market
why it matters5
Why it Matters

Before the boom, there was a postwar recession and depression to the economy that lasted into 1921 Why?

  • Increased competition for available jobs pushed wages down and diminished union power
  • Series of significant labor strikes
  • Known as the Depression of 1920 – 1921
why it matters6
Why it Matters
  • U.S. Unemployment from 1910 to 1960
why it matters7
Why it Matters
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average (Stock market) from January 1918 to January 1923.
the automobile drives prosperity
The Automobile Drives Prosperity
  • Recession/Depression does end.
  • Stock market rises
  • Unemployment falls as demands for goods increase; wages rise
  • One product may have sparked much of this economic expansion…
the automobile drives prosperity1
The Automobile Drives Prosperity

Ford Motor Company’s car for everyman, the Model T

the automobile drives prosperity2
The Automobile Drives Prosperity
  • Henry Ford, the man who revolutionized automobile production
the automobile drives prosperity3
The Automobile Drives Prosperity
  • Henry Ford biography video
the automobile drives prosperity5
The Automobile Drives Prosperity
  • Ford’s River Rouge Plant, Detroit Michigan, the largest industrial facility in history
ford pioneers mass production
Ford Pioneers Mass Production
  • Mass production
    • Ford applied the idea to automobiles which had thousands of parts, not just hundreds
  • Scientific management
    • New method of examining every task required to create a product
    • How long to accomplish each step; how many workers needed; etc.
    • Looked for ways to reduce production time, cost, labor
ford pioneers mass production1
Ford Pioneers Mass Production
  • Assembly Line
    • Applied lessons of slaughter houses – which took apart cattle – reversed the process to put machines together from individual parts
    • Reduced Model T production time from 12 hours to just 90 minutes per car.
    • Result: more cars made and at less cost
    • Model T retail price fell from $290 by 1927
    • Ownership of automobiles rose from 10% in 1919 to 56% in 1927
ford pioneers mass production2
Ford Pioneers Mass Production
  • Ford assembly line for the Model T
ford pioneers mass production3
Ford Pioneers Mass Production

ford pioneers mass production4
Ford Pioneers Mass Production
  • Assembly Line
    • Workers are no longer skilled craftsmen; instead they perform simple tasks repeatedly
    • However, does allow for more rapid hiring and training of workers
the automobile changes america
The Automobile Changes America
  • Increased production and ownership of automobiles causes demand in other products”
    • Rubber tires, steel, glass, gasoline
    • Increased mining for metals and petroleum
    • Increased trade for natural rubber
  • All these products expanded their own factors and hired more workers
the automobile changes america1
The Automobile Changes America
  • More cars needed more roads
  • Which brings up an experiment carried out by the U.S. Army in 1919
  • Lead by a young lieutenant….
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Mission: lead a convoy of trucks across the Continental United States
  • How quickly can the Army move by truck if the need arose?
the automobile changes america2
The Automobile Changes America

the automobile changes america3
The Automobile Changes America

the automobile changes america4
The Automobile Changes America

the automobile changes america5
The Automobile Changes America
  • Road construction boomed during the 1920s
  • Numbered system of highways introduced in 1926
  • New services arose along the new highways catering to the automobile traveler
    • Gas stations, repair garages, motor hotels (motels)
    • These added jobs
the automobile changes america6
The Automobile Changes America
  • Map of U.S. Highway system, 1926
the automobile changes america7
The Automobile Changes America
  • Automobile did diminish passenger travel by train and public transportation in cities
  • Why wait when you could go anywhere and anytime you wanted?
  • Why live in the crowded city when you could drive to work from the country?
a bustling economy
A Bustling Economy
  • Consumer revolution
  • Wave of new consumer goods designed to bring convenience to the consumer
  • Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, electric irons, telephones, etc.
advertising and credit build a consumer culture
Advertising and Credit Build a Consumer Culture
  • Advertising industry grew to support the consumer revolution
  • Applied new consumer market research techniques
  • What does the customer want? How can advertising influence the decision to buy?
  • How to persuade consumers to buy even when they do not have all the money?
  • Installment buying
    • Small down payment followed by regular small payment - installments
the big bull market makes fortunes
The Big Bull Market Makes Fortunes
  • Rapid economic expansion offers ordinary Americans the opportunity to invest companies
  • Buy stock – certificates of fractional ownership in a corporation
the big bull market makes fortunes1
The Big Bull Market Makes Fortunes

Buy stock on margins

  • Buyer does not need to front all the cost of stock shares; only a small percentage
  • Like buying on credit – great if the stock price keeps rising, but….
  • If the price falls and/or the company fails, buyer immediately responsible for paying entire balance
cities suburbs and country
Cities, Suburbs, and Country
  • While the automobile offered chance of living outside the city…
  • Most jobs were still in the city and cities where undergoing rapid construction boom
    • Skyscrapers
many americans face hardships
Many Americans Face Hardships
  • Rural farmers did not enjoy the increased prosperity
  • End of the war lead to fall in farm crop prices
  • Farmer income levels fell; debt increased
  • Explain the impact of Henry Ford and the automobile.
  • Analyze the consumer revolution and the bull market of he 1920’s.
  • Compare the different effects of the economic boom on urban and rural America
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Analyze how the policies of Presidents Harding and Coolidge favored business growth.
  • Discuss the most significant scandals during Harding’s presidency.
  • Explain the role that the United States played in the world during the 1920’s.
terms and people1
Terms and People
  • Andrew Mellon
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Dawes Plan
  • Test, Chapter 7
why it matters8
Why It Matters

President Warren G. Harding

  • Elected 1920 – landslide 60% of the vote
  • Promised “return to normalcy.”
  • Halt progressive reforms
  • Favored policies which aided growth of business
  • Laissez-faire philosophy
why it matters9
Why It Matters

Our objective:

  • How did domestic and foreign policy change direction under the Harding and Coolidge administrations?
the harding administration
The Harding Administration
  • What would Harding do to signal a change in federal economic policy?
new policies favor big business
New Policies Favor Big Business
  • Pro-business attitude of Harding signaled by appointment of Andrew Mellon to Secretary of Treasury, 1921
  • Would serve almost 12 years
  • What could a Secretary of Treasury do?
new policies favor big business1
New Policies Favor Big Business

Secretary of the United States Treasury

  • Cabinet officer in charge of Department of the Treasury
  • Responsible for economic, spending and tax policies of the federal government
  • Manages public debt
new policies favor big business2
New Policies Favor Big Business

Actions taken by Mellon:

  • By 1925, cut federal budget from wartime high of $18 billion to $3 billion
  • Federal annual budget now in surplus
  • Reduced national public debt from high of $33 billion in 1919 – peaked because of war spending – to $16 billion by 1929
new policies favor big business3
New Policies Favor Big Business

Actions taken by Mellon:

  • Favored low personal income and business income taxes
  • Reduced top income tax rates from 73% in 1922 to 25% in 1925
    • Still kept progressive income tax system
new policies favor big business4
New Policies Favor Big Business
  • Harding signs into law new, higher tariffs against imported goods – up 25%
  • Goal was to protect American industries from foreign competition
  • But European nations simply hiked their tariff in retaliation
  • Global trade suffered
new policies favor big business5
New Policies Favor Big Business

Herbert Hoover

  • Secretary of Commerce under Harding
  • He still favored a more progressive agenda
  • Worked with business and social leaders to achieve through voluntary action certain progressive goals
the ohio gang cashes in
The Ohio Gang Cashes In

Scandals would plague the Harding Administration

  • Why? Who was Harding?
  • Use iPad now to do quick research of Harding. We’ll put the information on the board
the ohio gang cashes in1
The Ohio Gang Cashes In

The Ohio Gang

  • Referred to men Harding knew from his days in Ohio
  • Did not include men like Hoover and Mellon
  • Turned out the Ohio Gang were corrupt, self-serving politicians out to enrich themselves
  • And Harding was too trusting and too poor a judge of character.
the ohio gang cashes in2
The Ohio Gang Cashes In

The Ohio Gang

  • Attorney General Harry Daugherty
  • Navy Secretary Edwin Denby
  • Secretary of Interior Albert Fall
  • These insiders and pals of Harding were in the unique position to exploit petroleum reserves in Wyoming intended to support the U.S. Navy
the teapot dome scandal explodes
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • Salt Creek Oil Field, North of Casper, Wyoming
  • U.S. Navy had converted from coal to oil in early part of 20th century; had control of oil fields to fuel ships
the teapot dome scandal explodes1
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • 1921 – Harding transferred control of the oil fields from U.S. Navy to Department of the Interior
the teapot dome scandal explodes2
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • Now Interior Secretary Falls leased oil production rights to oil companies without competitive bidding – legal but unethical
  • Falls granted oil companies very favorable terms
the teapot dome scandal explodes5
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • Then one of the oil companies gave Falls a $100,000 interest free loan (that’s about $1.3 million today)
  • Then came $404,000 in other gifts – now all this was illegal
the teapot dome scandal explodes6
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • Falls tried to keep things quiet, but people noticed his sudden increase in wealth and spending…
  • Wyoming oil man writes to his U.S. Senator…
the teapot dome scandal explodes7
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • Congressional investigations followed and continued for two years until the interest free loan came to light
  • Fall indicted, convicted of bribery and sent to jail – first time a cabinet member was imprisoned
the teapot dome scandal explodes8
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • So how much did President Harding know?
the teapot dome scandal explodes9
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
  • We do not know how deeply Harding was involved in the Teapot Dome Scandal
  • At best, Harding misjudged his friends
  • Harding died August 2, 1923
coolidge prosperity
Coolidge Prosperity
  • Vice President Coolidge sworn in a President at his family farm in Vermont
silent cal supports big business
“Silent Cal” Supports Big Business
  • Quiet, reserved, frugal – as your text describes Coolidge
  • Man of few words, hence “Silent Cal” nickname
  • Andrew Mellon continued in Coolidge Administration – reduce national debt, lowering taxes to give incentives to business
  • During his administration, American economy took off
troubles brew beneath the surface
Troubles Brew Beneath the Surface

While economy soared, some parts showed significant weakness. For example:

  • Crop prices and value of farmland continued to fall, hurting farmers
  • Labor unions demanded higher wages
  • African Americans continued to live under discriminatory “Jim Crow” laws

Coolidge had no interest in changing the social situation

america s role in the world
America’s Role in the World
  • America, though relatively undamaged by World War I, still was horrified by the high casualties
  • Like the other combatants, initially nations worked together to lessen the chance of another major war
seeking an end to war
Seeking an End to War
  • Arms Reduction– make war less likely by making treaties which limited production of weapons
  • Washington Naval Disarmament Conference – major naval powers agreed to limited the number and size of major warships – battleships
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 – 62 nations agreed to treaty which “outlawed” war
  • Yeah…right
collecting war debts
Collecting War Debts
  • Though cooperating with Britain and France on naval disarmament, Washington played hardball on debts
  • Britain and France owed huge loans U.S. made to them to help finance the war
  • They could not afford to pay back the U.S. until Germany made reparations payments required by Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany would not pay the reparations
collecting war debts1
Collecting War Debts
  • Some suggested cancelling the reparations and war debt, but…
  • Coolidge and others insisted on repayment of the loans by Britain and France
  • Dawes Plan of 1924 – U.S. loaned money to Germany so they could make reparations payment to Britain and France
  • Then Britain and France could repay the war debt
  • But it was all financed by U.S. money….
collecting war debts2
Collecting War Debts
  • Dawes Plan and American insistence on payment of loans soured our reputation with Europe – how could we not see how they suffered?
  • Analyze how the policies of Presidents Harding and Coolidge favored business growth.
  • Discuss the most significant scandals during Harding’s presidency.
  • Explain the role that the United States played in the world during the 1920’s.
learning objectives2
Learning Objectives
  • Compare economic and cultural life in rural America to that in urban America.
  • Discuss the changes in U.S. immigration policy in the 1920’s.
  • Analyze the goals and motives of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920’s.
  • Discuss the successes and failures of the Eighteenth Amendment.
terms and people2
Terms and People
  • Modernism
  • Fundamentalism
  • Scopes Trial
  • Clarence Darrow
  • Quota system
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • Prohibition
  • Eighteenth Amendment
  • Volstead Act
  • bootlegger
  • Test, Chapter 7
why it matters10
Why It Matters

Always interesting:

  • Yesterday’s social controversies are still with us today
  • Divisions among Americans still exist, but along different lines
    • Urban vs. rural viewpoints
    • Modernism vs. traditionalism
why it matters11
Why It Matters

Our objective:

  • How did Americans differ on major social and cultural issues?
why it matters12
Why It Matters

Witness History:

  • Billy Sunday November 19, 1862 -- November 6, 1935
  • Chicago White Sox athlete who become preacher and influential evangelist
  • Example of the conflict between traditional vs. modernism
  • “The Devil says I’m out; but the Lord says I’m safe.”

traditionalism and modernism clash
Traditionalism and Modernism Clash
  • 1920 Census – for the first time, more Americans lived in cities (urban) than in rural areas
  • Would like to new divisions among Americans along economic lines
  • Urban dwellers tended to favor secularism and science over traditional and religious values – a philosophy known as modernism
traditionalism and modernism clash1
Traditionalism and Modernism Clash
  • As already pointed out, urban populations tended to benefit from the emerging consumer movement and prosperity
  • Rural farming communities were falling behind
education becomes more important
Education Becomes More Important

Urban vs. rural attitudes toward education:

  • Rural communities tended to favor basic education – reading, writing and arithmetic
  • Urban communities were more supportive of higher education
  • 1930 – More Americans than ever were graduating from high school; more than ever were going to college
religious fundamentalism grows
Religious Fundamentalism Grows

Christian Fundamentalism

  • Protestant movement in opposition to modernism
  • Takes literal interpretation of Bible
  • 1920s – Tended toward militant opposition – not violent, but aggressive confrontation and noncooperation with modernist philosophies
  • Influenced by events in the world
    • Russian communist and atheist revolution
    • Mexican rebel attacks on Catholic Church
religious fundamentalism grows1
Religious Fundamentalism Grows

Christian Fundamentalism

  • Most popular in rural area, though could find adherents in urban areas too
americans clash over evolution
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Fundamental religion denominations and modernism clashed over scientific theory of evolution
  • Do you understand the theory of evolution?
americans clash over evolution1
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Evolution– Change over time, process by which modern species have descended from ancient preexisting species
      • Darwin’s theory applies to man as much as any other species
      • Idea that man was not placed on Earth by a divine act of creation, that man was a species which evolved like all the others, upset religious fundamentalists
americans clash over evolution2
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Evolution– That change in organisms results from genetic mutations and natural selection
    • Once the change is genetic, that change will pass from one generation to the next, and the next…
americans clash over evolution3
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Everyday use of the word theory has a different meaning than the meaning used by science.
  • It is well supported by evidence and has not failed a test.
  • Click on image to reach a six minute narrated video.
  • Choose Quicktime

americans clash over evolution4
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • What do you think?
    • Does the Catholic Church accept the theory of evolution by means of natural selection?
americans clash over evolution5
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Is the Theory of Evolution a threat to religious faith?
  • Can religious concepts be treated as science?
americans clash over evolution6
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • 1925 – Tennessee banned teaching of evolution in public school
  • American Civil Liberties Union convinced a biology teacher in Dayton, Tennessee – John Scopes – to defy the law and plead guilty to teaching scientific evolution in his classroom
  • Scopes was promptly arrested
americans clash over evolution7
Americans Clash Over Evolution

Background leading to the trial

  • Law sponsored by a rural legislator, John Butler – heard students where being taught the Bible was “nonsense”
  • Tennessee governor signed law into effect to keep rural constituents satisfied, believing it would never be enforced
  • ACLU wanted a test case
  • Local business leaders thought a widely publicized court case could bring attention and economic boost to Dayton
americans clash over evolution8
Americans Clash Over Evolution

Background leading to the trial

  • Scopes was merely a substitute biology teacher
  • He had trouble remembering is he, in fact, taught any part of evolution, but volunteered to best the defendant in the test case
  • In another twist, state mandated use of a biology textbook that described and endorsed evolution – an evident conflict for teachers
americans clash over evolution9
Americans Clash Over Evolution

Background leading to the trial

  • To build case against himself, Scopes resorted to coaching students to testify against him
  • Under pressure, local judge ordered Scopes arrested (though he never spent of minute in detention)
  • The stage is set for a confrontation between fundamentalist and modernist factions
  • Enter the lawyers…
americans clash over evolution10
Americans Clash Over Evolution

For the prosecution, William Jennings Bryan

For the defendant, Clarence Darrow

Agnostic, leading ACLU lawyer, famed for legal work

  • Former presidential candidate (three times), lifelong Presbyterian, and former Secretary of State
americans clash over evolution11
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Darrow and Bryan chatting during Scopes Trial
americans clash over evolution12
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Documentary on the Scopes “Monkey” Trial

14 min 11 seconds

americans clash over evolution13
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • Scopes found guilty; fined $100
  • It isn’t over…the rural/urban social conflict continues
americans clash over evolution14
Americans Clash Over Evolution
  • On the 150th anniversary of Darwin’s publication of On the Origin of Species, Gallup Poll showed
    • Only 4 out of 10 Americans accept the theory of evolution
    • Even in New York City they recently ran afoul of evolution
restricting immigration
Restricting Immigration
  • Controversies about immigration pitted native-born Americans against the latest immigrants
  • Nativists – native born Americans who believe new immigrants took their jobs and threatened the religious and social order
nativists oppose immigration
Nativists Oppose Immigration
  • Communist revolution used by nativists to stoke fear in Americans and turn country against immigration
quota laws limit newcomers
Quota Laws Limit Newcomers

Emergency Quota Act of 1921 / National Origins Act of 1924

  • Established quota system for immigration
  • Only so many people allowed in from specific countries
  • The annual number of immigrants allowed in could not exceed 2% of the number of persons already in the U.S. from the foreign country in 1890
quota laws limit newcomers1
Quota Laws Limit Newcomers
  • The popular image of immigrants to the United States
quota laws limit newcomers2
Quota Laws Limit Newcomers
  • The limiting of immigration
more mexicans come north
More Mexicans Come North
  • Quota system did not apply to Mexico
  • Needed for agricultural work and factories in the North
  • Did face discrimination
the new ku klux klan
The New Ku Klux Klan
  • Out of nativist desire to curb immigration and return America society to simpler times, came a revitalized domestic terrorist organization
the klan rises again
The Klan Rises Again
  • Ku Klux Klan originally formed to fight Reconstruction policies in the old, post-Civil War South
  • Focused on terrorizing and murdering former African-American slaves, now freemen
  • Reemerged in 1915 as potent political force in rural America
  • Turned their hatred to Catholics, Jews, immigrants, union members, as well as African Americans
the klan rises again1
The Klan Rises Again
  • At its peak in 1920s, membership expanded to 4 – 5 million – South, Midwest and Northeast
the klan rises again2
The Klan Rises Again
  • Klan was active in Maine in 1920s
  • Focused their hatred to French-Canadian immigrants from Canada, coming to Northeast textile mills
  • 1923 Klan rally in Waterville, Maine, attracted 15,000 people
  • Klan got a number of its members elected to local city offices – even mayor of Saco
the klan rises again3
The Klan Rises Again
  • Resistance to Klan in Maine grew
  • Sometimes Klan marches were met with counterdemonstrators armed with clubs
  • Klan march was turned back at a bridge in Biddeford by French-Canadian immigrants
  • Local laws were passed to prohibit wearing of masks and hoods that characterized Klan uniform
  • Klan membership fell as they could no longer be anonymous
americans oppose the klan
Americans Oppose the Klan
  • Nationally, America fight the Klan
  • NAACP, Anti-Defamation League
  • Klan leaders also shown to be corrupt, stealing money from members
prohibition and crime
Prohibition and Crime


  • Temperance movement (Chapter 4)
  • By 1917, 75 percent of Americans lived in “dry” counties – almost entirely rural – which banned possession and consumption of alcohol
  • World War I increased momentum of temperance movement, as it was seen to be unpatriotic to use grains to distill into whiskey when soldiers needed bread
  • FYI – the KKK was a big supported of Prohibition
prohibition and crime3
Prohibition and Crime


  • 1919 – 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:
  • “Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
  • Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
prohibition and crime4
Prohibition and Crime


  • Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress.”
prohibition and crime5
Prohibition and Crime


  • After the states ratified the 18th Amendment in 1919, Congress then passed the enabling legislation for the Amendment
  • Volstead Act of 1919
prohibition and crime6
Prohibition and Crime

Andrew Volstead

  • Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee
  • Fell to him to writing the National Prohibition Act (its formal name)
  • Not reelected by his constituents
prohibition and crime7
Prohibition and Crime

prohibition and crime8
Prohibition and Crime
  • The “wets”
americans break the law
Americans Break the Law

So, everybody is going to stop drinking?

  • Volstead Act had exactly the opposite effect
  • Alcohol consumption increased during the years of Prohibition – 1919 to 1933
  • Widespread defiance of the law by otherwise law abiding citizens
  • To supply continued demand, a new criminal culture arose..
americans break the law1
Americans Break the Law
  • Al Capone – an icon of organized crime which emerged from Prohibition
  • Bootlegger – popular name given to makers of illegal liquor
americans break the law2
Americans Break the Law

St Valentines Day Massacre

  • February 14, 1929
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • Five gangsters of competing Moran Irish mob murdered in garage, with two others
  • Capone failed to get Moran himself
  • Emblematic to effect of Prohibition
americans break the law3
Americans Break the Law
  • Corruption of public officials and law enforcement officers grew significantly
  • Too much money being made by illegal trade in liquor
americans break the law4
Americans Break the Law


  • Popular defiance of Volstead Act
  • “speaking quietly about such places in public.”
americans break the law5
Americans Break the Law
  • Enforcement of Volstead Act required expenditure of millions of dollars to rebuild the U.S. Coast Guard and create new federal law enforcement agency – Bureau of Prohibition (which would eventually be folded into the FBI)
americans break the law6
Americans Break the Law
  • Black Duck incident, December 30, 1929, Narragansett Bay
americans break the law7
Americans Break the Law

Elliot Ness

  • Famed Bureau of Prohibition agent who formed special elite enforcement unit in Chicago
  • Known as the “Untouchables”
  • Credited with taking down Al Capone
americans break the law9
Americans Break the Law


  • Prohibition was a body blow to the federal budget
  • Income tax was new; most federal revenues came from tariffs on imported goods and taxes on liquor
prohibition divides the nation
Prohibition Divides the Nation

Lesson learned

  • Ill-advised “noble experiment” – in the words of Herbert Hoover
  • Result of one segment of society – largely rural traditionalists – attempting to impose their views on the urban modernists
  • Attempted to overturn 5,000 years of custom and tradition
  • Pluralistic, democratic nations must accommodate views of all
legacy of prohibition
Legacy of Prohibition
  • NASCAR – high versions of cars developed by Southern Moonshiners to evade police
  • Speedboats and PT boats – installation of aircraft enginers – 500 horsepower Liberty engines – into small craft to ferry liquor from offshore supply ships
  • FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation owes its emergence to the national culture of lawlessness
  • Organized Crime / Mafia – Prohibition provide huge boost to sophistication and power of organized crime
  • Compare economic and cultural life in rural America to that in urban America.
  • Discuss the changes in U.S. immigration policy in the 1920’s.
  • Analyze the goals and motives of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920’s.
  • Discuss the successes and failures of the Eighteenth Amendment.
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Trace the reasons that leisure time increased during the 1920’s.
  • Analyze how the development of popular culture united Americans and created new activities and heroes.
  • Discuss the advancements of women in the 1920’s.
  • Analyze the concept of modernism and its impact on writers and painters in the 1920’s.
terms and people3
Terms and People
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • The Jazz Singer
  • Babe Ruth
  • Charles Lindbergh
  • flapper
  • Sigmund Freud
  • “Lost Generation”
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • Test, Chapter 7
witness history
Witness History

“Ain’t We Got Fun”

why it matters13
Why It Matters
  • Automobile wasn’t the only innovation that changed American life
    • Wireless radio
    • Moving pictures – silent to “talkies”
    • Professional sport teams
why it matters14
Why It Matters

Our objective:

  • How did the new mass culture reflect technological and social change?
new trends in popular culture
New Trends in Popular Culture
  • While cultural barriers among Americans were building – traditionalists vs. modernists…
  • Technology was beginning to break down other barriers among Americans
americans enjoy more leisure time
Americans Enjoy More Leisure Time
  • Farm workers faced never ending work – little time off
  • Urban factory workers and professionals had set hours
    • Workweek in 1850 – 70 hours
    • Workweek in 1910 – 55 hours
    • Workweek in 1930 – 45 hours
    • At the same time, industrial wages rose – how to spend the money?
americans flock to the movies
Americans Flock to the Movies
  • 1920’s – 60 to 100 million Americans went to the movies each week
  • Cheap entertainment available to anyone who had the impulse to go
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Americans Flock to the Movies

Charlie Chaplin in Breakfast at the Evergreen Hotel

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Americans Flock to the Movies

Charlie Chaplin

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Americans Flock to the Movies

The Jazz Singer – 1927, first “talkie” with sound synchronized to onscreen action

“You Ain’t Heard Nothing Yet”

Al Jolson

the radio and phonograph break barriers
The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers
  • Two advanced in technology – phonograph and (wireless) radio
  • Now entertainment – especially radio – could be brought into one’s own home
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The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers

1920’s Radio Broadcast

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The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers
  • Tunny vs. Jack Dempsey, 1927
  • Live radiobroadcast heard in millions of American homes – impossible before the wireless radio
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The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers
  • Edison cylinder phonograph used fragile wax cylinders; poor quality; difficult to use; 1888 - 1915

Georgia Camp Meeting, 1901

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The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers
  • 1920’s – new grooved discs and better phonograph technology greatly improved quality
  • 78 rpm discs
an age of heroes
An Age of Heroes
  • Rise of professional sports matched by rise in live radio broadcast – now able to reach audiences in the millions
  • Result is emergence of national sports heroes
sports heroes win fans
Sports Heroes Win Fans
  • Babe Ruth (1895 – 1948)
  • Perhaps the nation needed heroes after World War I
babe ruth s 60 th home run september 30 1927
Babe Ruth’s 60th Home Run, September 30, 1927

lucky lindy crosses the atlantic
“Lucky Lindy” Crosses the Atlantic
  • Charles Lindbergh
  • May 1927 – solo pilots single engine high wing monoplane nonstop across the Atlantic – Long Island to Paris

women assume new roles
Women Assume New Roles
  • New Women of the 1920’s
  • Fashions changed to shorter hemlines, more makeup, dancing in public to popular tunes
  • Emergence of the flapper
    • Perhaps more popular in image than in fact
women assume new roles1
Women Assume New Roles

women make strides
Women Make Strides
  • 1925 – first women state governors – Wyoming and Texas
  • Women work toward higher positions in the workplace and in corporate America
  • Women begin to appear in the professions of law, medicine, aviation, banking, etc.
family life changes
Family Life Changes
  • Women tending to marry later and have fewer children
  • Labor saving household devices in those areas with electrification
modernism in art and literature
Modernism in Art and Literature
  • Experience of World War I profoundly impacted American art and literature
the arts reflect a mood of uncertainty
The Arts Reflect a Mood of Uncertainty
  • The art historians would say…
  • 1920’s saw emergence of art which questioned the future, that human progress was not inevitable
    • How could we have fought such a brutal war?
    • Their pessimistic, skeptical outlook was known as modernism
postwar american literature flowers
Postwar American Literature Flowers
  • “Lost Generation” of the American authors of the 1920’s
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway. Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, T.S. Eliot
  • A search for new truths
  • Trace the reasons that leisure time increased during the 1920’s.
  • Analyze how the development of popular culture united Americans and created new activities and heroes.
  • Discuss the advancements of women in the 1920’s.
  • Analyze the concept of modernism and its impact on writers and painters in the 1920’s.
learning objectives4
Learning Objectives
  • Analyze the racial and economic philosophies of Marcus Garvey.
  • Trace the development and impact of jazz.
  • Discuss the themes explored by writers of the Harlem Renaissance.
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Terms and People
  • Marcus Garvey
  • Jazz
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Bessie Smith
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Claude McKay
  • Langston Hughes
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Test, Chapter 7
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Why It Matters

Our objective

  • How did African Americans express a new sense of hope and pride?
a new black consciousness
A New “Black Consciousness”
  • Great Migration continued through the 1920’s
  • The Old South offered African-Americans only continued legal discrimination and segregation
  • Greater economic and social opportunity seemed possible in the North
migrants face chances and challenges
Migrants Face Chances and Challenges
  • No legal restrictions barred African Americans from taking a job at a Pittsburg steel mill or a Detroit auto plant
    • Of course, there were social restrictions…
    • Could not live in just any neighborhood…
    • Racism and race riots happened in the North
  • A growing black middle and professional class in the heavy industrial cities of the North
garvey calls for racial pride
Garvey Calls for Racial Pride
  • Harlem district of New York City
  • Major leadership figure of the African American community of Harlem– Marcus Garvey
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Garvey Calls for Racial Pride
  • Born Jamaica 1887
  • Immigrated to Harlem 1916
  • Publisher, journalist, speaker
  • Promoted Black Nationalism
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Garvey Calls for Racial Pride
  • Garvey concluded that blacks were oppressed in all countries outside of Africa
  • Promoted idea of a return of all Africans to Africa
  • Spoke against cooperation with whites in American; rather promoted separation of the races
  • Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association which, at its height, had 2.5 million members in America
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Garvey Calls for Racial Pride
  • Garvey indicted and convicted for mail fraud by U.S. government Bureau of Investigation under J. Edgar Hoover (later to become FBI)
    • Hoover had targeted Garvey
  • Served three months in jail, sentence commuted by President Coolidge and Garvey was deported to Jamaica
  • UNIA fell apart without his leadership
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Garvey Calls for Racial Pride


  • Although his UNIA did not survive, last lesson for African Americans was to take pride in their heritage and accomplishments
the jazz age
The Jazz Age


  • Indigenous form of music to the U.S., based largely on improvisation
  • Combination of popular European music and African American blues
a unique american music emerges
A Unique American Music Emerges

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The Harlem Renaissance
  • Harlem become a nexus of African American literature, arts, music
the harlem renaissance2
The Harlem Renaissance
  • Langston Hughes
  • Likely most prominent literary voice of African Americans of his time
  • Leading figure of Harlem Renaissance
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The Harlem Renaissance

Hold fast to dreams

For if dreams die

Life is a broken-winged bird

That cannot fly.

Hold fast to dreams

For when dreams go

Life is a barren field

Frozen with snow.

- See more at:

  • What might be the message behind this Langston Hughes poem
learning objectives5
Learning Objectives
  • Analyze the racial and economic philosophies of Marcus Garvey.
  • Trace the development and impact of jazz.
  • Discuss the themes explored by writers of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Test, Chapter 7