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Growth and Prosperity. Georgia History Chapter 9. Growth After the Revolution. Constitution requires that a census be taken every 10 years (GA quadrupled in 50 years). Geography of land determined settlements (Cumberland Gap) 1787 GA gave up land to create Alabama and Mississippi

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growth and prosperity

Growth and Prosperity

Georgia History

Chapter 9

growth after the revolution
Growth After the Revolution
  • Constitution requires that a census be taken every 10 years (GA quadrupled in 50 years).
  • Geography of land determined settlements (Cumberland Gap)
  • 1787 GA gave up land to create Alabama and Mississippi
  • Louisiana Purchase ($15 million) doubled size of U.S.
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Americans felt they had a right to all land west of the Mississippi River
  • Lewis and Clark sent on expedition to map lands
  • Western expansion created desire for freedom, unlimited opportunities and cheap land.
  • Manifest Destiny was belief of U.S. from coast to coast.
georgia
Georgia
  • Creeks and Cherokees, in heavy debt from white traders, gave up more than 2 million acres of backcountry
  • Growing population meant more representation in state and federal House
  • State government continued to pressure Indians into ceding (giving up) land.
public land distribution
Public Land Distribution
  • Do we give up land to encourage settlement or sell it to pay for roads, schools, etc.? Population growth wins.
  • GA uses headright system; war veterans received more land (288 – 1,955 acres)
  • People chose plats (maps of land lots); along rivers most popular. Headright lots often irregular shapes.
georgia s capital
Georgia’s Capital
  • Savannah was capital when it was a colony
  • Settlers/traders said Augusta was closer for backcountry folks (legislature heard all court cases)
  • Augusta still too far east, so Louisville (on Ogeechee River) was named capital
  • In 1806 Milledgeville became capital
yazoo land fraud
Yazoo Land Fraud
  • Land speculation allowed people to buy at low prices and sell high
  • 1795 four private companies bribe many members of General Assembly to pass law to let companies buy land to Yazoon River (in Mississippi) for $.02/acre
  • Newly elected legislature repealed law and publicly burned it.
  • Federal government ended up paying off claims.
georgia s western territory see page 141
Georgia’s Western Territory (see page 141)
  • Both GA and Spain claimed land between Chattahoochee River and Mississippi River. Spain gave it up.
  • After War, it was decided the area would be the Mississippi Territory with its own government.
  • GA citizens tired of lawsuits from Yazoo Fraud and trying to protect its settlers there.
  • Federal government paid Georgia $1,250,000 for land and agreed to remove all Indians from the state.
georgia acquires indian lands
Georgia Acquires Indian Lands
  • Settlers wanted Indians out so they could take their land
  • Gen. Elijah Clarke tried to create independent government on Creek Indian land (built several forts and called area Trans-Oconee Republic), but Georgia army and federal troops removed them
  • By 1802 Georgians fighting Creeks along Oconee River. Creeks signed treaty to give up land west to the Ocmulgee River.
land lotteries
Land Lotteries
  • By 1803 no headright system. Surveyors divided land into small square lots, so that families would settle frontier.
  • Lots varied along with quality of land (better quality, smaller lots)
  • Lottery for every white male (21+) allowed to draw one chance (w/wife and child = 2 chances). Widows and orphans had 1 chance.
state lottery continued
State Lottery (continued)
  • They would register at county courthouse.
  • Names sent to state capital, written on a ticket, and placed in a barrel.
  • Land lots given away were numbered. Number of each lot was written on a ticket and placed in a barrel.
  • Official drew from both barrels simultaneously to award land to “fortunate drawers”
advantages of winning the lottery
Advantages of Winning the Lottery
  • Land was free (except $4.00/100 acres recording fee)
  • Winners could farm land or sell it.
  • Six lotteries held in 28 years
  • Georgia distributed about 30 million acres to more than 100,000 fortunate drawers.
encouraging economic growth
Encouraging Economic Growth
  • Steamboats and railroads rapidly created faster/cheaper transportation
  • Samuel Slater’s inventions in textile industry created factories
  • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, Henry Blair’s corn harvester, and Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper made great advances in agriculture.
northern economic growth
Northern Economic Growth
  • More roads, railroads and canals allowed for large industrialization. Finish goods now shipped all over country.
  • Southern cotton could also be shipped.
  • More settlement in West helped fuel nation’s growth as exchange of farm and manufactured goods increased.
government and transportation
Government and Transportation
  • Georgia officials worked with business people to develop a transportation system
  • Planned cities encouraged settlement in undeveloped areas
  • Rivers became “highways” to transport goods, Savannah River becomes waterway between backcountry and port of Savannah. Augusta becomes a major city.
water transportation
Water Transportation
  • Rectangular barges (Oconee boxes) carried bales of cotton downriver to ocean ports. Couldn’t go upstream due to current.
  • Steamboats (1820s) transported large quantities of cotton downstream and return with goods needed inland.
  • Steamboats privately owned, but government passed laws and spent money to make sure rivers didn’t become hazardous.
water transportation1
Water Transportation
  • Rectangular barges (Oconee boxes) carried bales of cotton downriver to ocean ports. Couldn’t go upstream due to current.
  • Steamboats (1820s) transported large quantities of cotton downstream and return with goods needed inland.
  • Steamboats privately owned, but government passed laws and spent money to make sure rivers didn’t become hazardous.
a georgia canal
A Georgia Canal?
  • Word of Erie Canal spread south, and Georgia government looked into possible canal to connect the Ocmulgee or Oconee River to the Tennessee River and Mississippi River to New Orleans.
  • North Georgia Mountains prevented a canal
georgia roads
Georgia Roads
  • After War most “roads” were old Indian trails. Roads needed for settlers to travel west and to get their crops to market.
  • 1806 Congress decided to construct a road from Cumberland, Maryland to Ohio River. This was the first national highway.
  • In 1775 Georgia colonial government made all males between 16 and 60 work on roads 12 days per year.
georgia roads1
Georgia Roads
  • Government finally turned to turnpike organizations (private roadway built and maintained by companies and travelers paid a toll).
  • Pikes across road prevented travelers from using road until toll was paid.
  • Some had bridges and ferries that charged extra tolls.