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Resilience profiles 2018: Highlights from the household perception survey

Resilience profiles 2018: Highlights from the household perception survey

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Resilience profiles 2018: Highlights from the household perception survey

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  1. Resilience profiles 2018:Highlights from the household perception survey Understanding Institutional Architecture, Resilience Capacities and the Status of Social Capital across 7 Candidate Partnership Areas (CPAs) for the Partnership for Recovery and Resilience

  2. Introduction • Resilience Profiles are bringing evidence together to serve as a common reference for baselining, benchmarking and discussing priorities across and within CPAs. • Quantitative (household survey) and qualitative (KIIs and FGDs) methods. • Between 400-800 households were surveyed in each of the 7 CPAs using random selection of households. • KIIs targeted key institutional actors • FGDs targeted Community Groups • This is a presentation of snapshots from the survey data organized around the 4 Pillars of the Partnership Framework. • Aside from demographic information it conveys the perception of respondents around issues deemed important by the Partners.

  3. PILLAR 1: TRUST IN INSTITUTIONS AND PEOPLE

  4. Bor, Yambio, Rumbek, and Aweil have a single ethnic community. Torit is almost exclusively of one ethnic group, but has a small minority presence. Wau and Yei are the most ethnically diverse. The Ethnic dimension of community

  5. In Aweil, Rumbek and Bor between 12-18% of mothers and between 21-33% of fathers are absent. In Torit, Wau, and Yambio between 24-30% of mothers and 33-43% of fathers are absent In Yei over 34% of mothers are absent. In Wau and Yei, 43% of fathers are absent. Family as the first institution of community

  6. Population under 30 years is about 70% (3 CPAs are given as an example) Aweil Torit Yambio Population distribution

  7. Traditional Chiefs are cited as most important in Bor, Aweil, Yambio, Torit, followed by the Paramount chief. • Only in Rumbek, the Paramount Chief is cited as most important followed by the Traditional Chiefs. • Local Governments are also commonly cited as second most important institutions after the Chieftaincy. Major institutions affecting the community

  8. Chiefs settle disputes across CPAs. In Yambio, Rumbek and Bor, their role is also largely administration of land. Across CPAs, the Chiefs help maintain rule of law. In Rumbek and Aweil they also collect taxes. Social safety net and humanitarian affairs are far less pronounced roles. Chiefs only perform cultural rituals in a few of the CPAs. Role of the chiefs in community

  9. Almost all conflicts are solved by dialogue. Most often by the Traditional Leaders. In Yei, Aweil and Yambio, the UN played a significant role. In Yambio, Bor and to a lesser extent Torit, the FBO played a role; in Yambio, Torit and Bor also Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms were used. In Rumbek and Bor the Police played a role; judiciary is present but weak across CPAs How Conflict has been resolved

  10. Pillar two Restoring Access to Basic Services

  11. For cultural and economic reasons and/or have never been to school Over 1/3 of adults cannot read or write Educational status of adults

  12. Majority of schools are Government funded Access to Education Majority of schools are over 5 kms from where a student lives 1/3 are privately funded Almost no NGO funding

  13. Pillar 3 Strengthening Productive Capacities

  14. Except Wau, over 75% of respondents across CPAs reported lacking food in the last 12 months. The major cause was conflict. In Torit, Bor, and Rumbek a long dry spell was also cited as a cause of food insecurity. In Torit and Bor, flooding was cited as a cause. Lacked food last 12 months Causes of lack of food Food insecurity and causes

  15. Most common response to food insecurity is using other household resources and/or getting food from relatives. A significant number of respondents also get food aid from WFP and/or NGOs. The forest also provides a significant source of food supplementation. Government’s role in responding to food insecurity is negligible. Household Responses to food insecurity

  16. Only in Wau do above 30% consider the war itself to drive conflict. With the exception of Aweil, over 30% of respondents across all CPAs consider unemployment as a significant driver of conflict. Respondents cite weak conflict resolution mechanisms at a rate of below 30% except for Bor where their concern reaches 40%. What causes Conflict in the community

  17. All CPAs cite tribalism as an important conflict driver. Across CPAs and particularly in Rumbek (90%) and Bor (80%), they also cite availability of firearms. Aweil is the exception for both these issues. All CPAs cite lack of rule of law at over 35% with Rumbek and Bor exceeding 70%. What causes Conflicts in the community

  18. Cattle raiding is most prevalent in Bor (inter-community and politicized) Rumbek follows Bor where cattle raiding is inter-clan (intra-community) and largely traditional. In Torit, cattle raiding is largely inter-community and has historic roots. Almost no raiding reported in Wau and Yei where farmer-pastoral conflicts pit immigrant communities against hosts. Cattle raiding as a form of conflict

  19. The most cooperation is reported within community (bonding) Intercommunal Cooperation (bridging) is weak but more so in Torit and Yei and strongest in Rumbek, Wau and Aweil. State-society (linking) is weakest in Torit and Yei and strongest in Bor, Rumbek and Yambio social capital – cooperation across all assets

  20. For agriculture, inter-community cooperation (bonding) is relatively strong State-society cooperation (linking) is moderate Inter-communal cooperation (bridging) is moderate but weakest in Torit and Yei. For forests, bonding is strong in Torit and Bor, moderate in Aweil and Yambio, and weakest in Wau, Yei and Rumbek. Bridging is only moderate in Wau and weak elsewhere, especially Torit, Wau and Yei. Linking is only moderate in Bor, but weak elsewhere, with conflict in Torit, Yei and Rumbek. Agriculture forest Cooperation over agriculture and forests

  21. Except in Bor and Torit where bonding around land is high, there is only weak intra-communal cooperation. Cooperation significantly drops when land is considered inter-communally (bridging). When the state is involved, land becomes a driver of conflict. Markets show strong inter-communal bonding across areas except Wau where cooperation is moderate. For bridging, markets continue to promote moderate inter-communal cooperation except in Torit and Yei. In terms of state-society cooperation, markets promote mostly moderate cooperation but strong in Aweil and Bor. land markets Cooperation over land and markets

  22. Crop Production (Sorghum in Torit, Bor, Rumbek, Aweil, and Wau and Cassava in Yei and Rumbek) is the biggest livelihood opportunity perceived across CPAs with the exception of Aweil and Yambio where construction ranks slightly higher. Livestock production also ranks high especially in Bor, Rumbek, Yambio and Aweil. Major livelihood opportunities

  23. Petty trade is perceived across CPAs as a market opportunity, especially in Wau, Yei and Rumbek. Collection of firewood and charcoal burning also rank high. Brewing of beer is also seen as a market opportunity, especially in Yambio and Torit. Major Opportunities in the market

  24. Crop production is leading to bush burning/clearing. Livestock production is leading to over-grazing. Charcoal, bricks, and timber are leading to the clearance of forests. Activities destroying the environment Dominant livelihood activities are leading to ecological vulnerabilities.

  25. Pillar 4 NURTURING PARTNERSHIPS

  26. In Torit, 51% of respondents have heard of an agency active in their community. In Bor, 26%. In Wau, 13% In Yei, 31% In Rumbek 27% Yambio 17% Aweil 21% Have you heard of agencies operating in your area

  27. Pillar 1: trust in Institutions and people • Communities self-identify in ethnic terms although levels of ethnic diversity differ by area. This is the starting point for understanding bonds, bridges and links of social capital and a community’s institutional architecture. • The family is the first institution of community and administers a household consisting of assets. Ultimately, the Partnership is trying to better increase access to and influence over assets essential to recovery and resilience. At a family level, findings reveal parental absenteeism is high. This should be further explored. • Across households, youth comprise the majority. Traditional institutions have long organized the youth as a pool of labor (for recovery) and a fighting force in times of trouble (including all the wars). The chiefs have always been responsible for guiding these youth, including in sending them to fight. • Continued reliance on chieftaincy as reflected in the findings shows community trust in traditional institutions. Additionally, the findings show that Chiefs are playing core governance functions across the CPAs, including in areas of conflict resolution, community security and public financial management. They are at the heart of resilience. • A range of other local and international institutions also support conflict resolution, including through hybrid institutions such as peace committees that bring together actors from across institutions.

  28. Pillar 2: Restoring access to basic services • Local government is providing essential services in health, education and policing but delivery capacity is low primarily due to inability to pay government staff. However, these institutions are still translating social capital into community service through volunteerism and are among the basic building blocks for greater resilience. • The findings show that one clear factor driving conflict is environmental degradation, which is undermining livelihoods and fueling conflict. • Community policing is considered a fundamental public service. • Without rule of law, communities may bond together in response to conflict; this can be a positive form of community security or negative when it fuels militias that fight each other and the government, ultimately engaging in banditry to survive as conditions for them become more desperate. • Community’s generally don’t see the problem as only elite politics/patronage but rather recognize that there is a collective responsibility for tribalism, nepotism and corruption which must be addressed at multiple levels.

  29. Pillar 3: Strengthening Productive Capacities • The findings further show that just as communities are fighting over control of the forests others are also cooperating in the fields. Land is now in some instances a source of conflict for the same communities who seem to be cooperating in the markets. • Cattle herding and/or raiding occurs along the bonds, bridges and links of social capital with positive and/or negative implications. It is a key source of livelihoods and of conflict • Perceived market opportunities largely originate in crop production and forestry, which too are both drivers of conflict and building blocks of cooperation. • Agriculture and livestock are the basis of subsistence livelihoods, with sorghum and cassava considered most important locally. As cash crops, these have the added potential to reach domestic and international markets when roads and market coordination are improved. • Without sustainable alternatives, the dominant livelihood activities (charcoal burning and timber) are leading to ecological vulnerabilities that create conditions for more conflict.

  30. Pillar 4: nurturing partnership • While external aid is a significant contribution across CPAs it is only a supplement to local resources. • Humanitarian footprint differs by CPA and while many households are being reached with vital support, more remain outside the Partnership. • Reported conflict factors are both local and national, economic and political; however, dialogue is a core response mechanism that cuts across absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities and strengthens the bonds, bridges and links of social capital. Dialogue is also the core mechanism of partnership. • Understanding the role of institutions as we have tried to do through this Resilience Profiling is one step towards more informed programs with the potential to transform conflict and build livelihoods. • The Partnership seeks to put community first, involve all stakeholders, and develops plans on the basis of evidence, measurement, and a long term resilience agenda to meet the challenge of increasing vulnerability.

  31. Thanks! We hope this Resilience Profiling will continue and become a collectively-owned open source data set that serves the Partnership moving forward.