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Egyptian Environmental Integrated Risk Management System. Introduction.

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slide1

Egyptian Environmental

Integrated Risk Management

System

slide2

Introduction

Recent events raised the issue of safety and emergency preparedness for all people in the country. These events included those, which are naturally occurring, such as earthquake or floods. They also included industry-related events that cause serious damage to the environment and loss of the life and property.

slide3

Hazardous Substances:

  • Substances having dangerous properties which are hazardous to human health, or which adversely affect the environment,
  • such as: contagious, toxic, explosive
slide4

CLASS 1 (EXPLOSIVE)

Liable to detonation under appropriate circumstances such as fire or shock. Usually stable if not involved in fire or not moved. Do not handle unless trained and equipped.

Division 1.1 - Mass Explosion Hazard,

Division 1.2 - Explosion Hazard with Fragmentation,

Division 1.3 - Radiant Heat and/or violent burning Hazard, no blast Hazard,

Division 1.4 - Small Hazard of Ignition or Initiation during Transport,

Division 1.5 - Mass Explosion Hazard but very insensitive,

Division 1.6 - Extremely intsensitive with no mass explosion hazard.

slide5

CLASS 2 (FLAMMABLE, NON-

FLAMMABLE, POISON GAS)

CLASS 2, DIVISION 2.1 (FLAMMABLE GAS)

Compressed gasses which are flammable. May also be toxic or corrosive. Vapours may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to the source. Many of these gasses are heavier than air and will tend to spread close to ground level. Examples: Propane, Butane and welding gasses such as Acetylene.

CLASS 2, DIVISION 2.2 (NON-FLAMMABLE GAS)

Compressed gasses which are not flammable. May also be corrosive or toxic. These gasses may suffocate by oxygen displacement. While not flammable, some of these gasses may support and even accelerate a fire. High-pressure containers can rocket or throw shrapnel if exposed to fire or ruptured. Examples: Anhydrous Ammonia, Compressed Air, Nitrogen, Argon, Carbon Dioxide.

CLASS 2, DIVISION 2.3 (POISON GAS)

Extremely toxic compressed gas or high vapour pressure liquid. Even low level exposure to vapour or fumes may result in serious injury or death. May be flammable and/or corrosive as well. Examples: Chlorine, Hydrocyaniac Acid, Phosgene, Ethylene Oxide.

slide6

CLASS 3 (FLAMMABLE and

COMBUSTIBLELIQUIDS)

One of the most common hazardous materials classifications including gasoline, some alcohol, paints, thinners, etc. May be toxic and corrosive as well. Flammable liquids evolve vapours which will generally ignite readily when exposed to an ignition source. Some of these vapours may be harmful. Combustible liquids will burn but require some effort to ignite. They do not meet the criteria for any other hazard class (except Class 9) and range from paint thinners to heating oils. They are not regulated in shipping containers of 110 (417 liters) gallons or less.

slide7

CLASS 4 (FLAMMABLE SOLIDS)

This class includes materials which are FLAMMABLE SOLIDS (Division 4.1),

SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL and PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS (Division 4.2), and DANGEROUS WHEN WET (Division 4.3).

These materials are liable through friction, contact with air, water or by self heating, to ignite and burn with great intensity or produce flammable gasses. Many are toxic if taken internally such as through contaminated food, contaminated cigarettes, or water. Usually highly reactive and if involved in a fire may burst their containers. Examples: Phosphorus, Sodium Metal, Calcium Carbide.

CLASS 5 (OXIDISERS

AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES)

Very reactive with wood, oils, fuels,

paper, or any organic material, to generate heat, ignite or explode. Will promote and accelerate fires to the point of possible explosion. Will react with skin and clothing. Usually does not present a vapour hazard unless reacting or involved in a fire. May decompose explosively upon heating or contamination. Examples: Hydrogen Peroxide, Potassium Permanganate, Ammonium Perchlorate, Dry Chlorine for swimming pools, Some fertilisers.

slide8

CLASS 6 (POISONOUS

MATERIAL)

Toxic liquids or solids.

Not highly flammable, but may be mixed in oil carriers. Not severely corrosive. Primarily toxic by skin contact or ingestion. May be toxic by inhalation of vapours or dust if dust is airborne or material is on fire. May be extremely poisonous and if exposure occurs death may result very quickly. Examples: Arsenic, Sodium Cyanide, Strychnine and many pesticides.

slide9

CLASS 7 (RADIOACTIVE)

Emits harmful radiation which cannot be detected without specialised instruments. High level materials are packed in such strong packages that leakage in a very low possibility. Medical materials are often shipped in small lead vessels. Low level wastes include debris contaminated with small amount of radioactive material. These included such items as clothing, paper, tools, etc. Do not handle these materials or handle broken packages.

slide10

CLASS 8 (CORROSIVE)

Acids or bases which may be in liquid or solid form. they will attack a variety of metals and will produce severe damage to skin or other tissues on contact. May react with other materials such as water to evolve heat and gasses. In a violent reaction, acids or bases may produce a large volume of corrosive vapours which may spread a considerable distance. Examples: Hydrochloric Acid, Sulphuric Acid, and Caustic Soda.

slide11

CLASS 9 (Miscellaneous

Hazardous Materials)

Materials which do not fit

another hazard class such

as those which have an

anaesthetic, noxious, or other similar property which could affect a flight crew: or hazardous substances or hazardous wastes which do not meet the definition of another hazard class or division. Examples: Acetaldehyde Ammonia, PCB’s Sodium Chromate.

slide12

Air pollution

Landscape disturbance

Ozone-depleting and

greenhouse gases

Exposure to

toxic chemicals

Habitat degradation

Waste dumping

Spills

Risks

Nuisances: noise, lighting/transport

Marine pollution

Water pollution

Soil contamination

Groundwater contamination

Industry

slide13

1999 Mont Blanc Tunnel,

Truckload of edible oil caught fire: 39 died

slide18

1998 Nigeria

Explosion at a leaking fuel pipeline: 625 died

Repeated in the meantime 2 times!!

slide19

Explosion

Earthquake

Flooding

Transport accident

Toxic Release

  • Threatening
  • Live
  • Health of people
  • Environment
  • Property

Landslide

Fire

Emissions from nuclear power plants

Oil spill

Storm / hurricane

Forestfire

Tailings dam failure

Disasters do occur!

slide20

Illegal operations? (media reports)

(storage volumes, nature of products stored and handled)

Company Fireworks

  • Consciously running a high risk
  • Unsafe practices
  • No risk communication (community, local government)
  • Typical risks were not taken into account : Fire, water, flashes
  • Inadequately insured
slide21

Community:

  • Completely unaware of the hazardous installation;
  • Unprepared;
  • Many lost everything;
  • Trauma, health damages, loss of family members and neighbours, loss of property.
slide22

Authorised operation

(handling of explosives next to residential areas)

Local Government:

  • Safety standards??
  • Lack of control
  • Information policy inadequate
slide23

Legal Framework:

  • Law 4/94
  • ILO Convension
  • Agemda 21, chapter 19
  • Appell Program
slide25

EEIRMS Strategy for:-

  • Preparedness
  • Efficient Emergency Response Planning
  • Risk Reduction
  • Mitigation
  • Disaster Prevention
slide26

Project AIM:

The Promotion of a Sound Management System to:

Create and/ or increase public awareness of possible hazards within a community;

Stimulate the development of co-operative plans to respond to any emergency that might occur;

Encourage prevention of accident.

slide27

Risk Communication

Toxic Assessment

Risk Assessment

Risk Charachterization

Exposure- dose Assessment

Risk Management

Hazard Identification

Methodology

slide28

Egyptian Environmental Integrated Risk Management System

Industry

SYSTEM

PROCESS

Community

Local Government

slide29

Risk Assessment

Procedure:

  • Inventory (Listing of objects)
  • Identification of hazards
  • Evaluation
  • Classification
  • Ranking
slide31

Risk Assessment

Risk type

Threatened object

Consequences

Object

Operation

Hazard

6

5

2

3

4

1

Object Operation Hazard Risk- Threatened Conse-

(quantity)type object quences

Identification

Evaluation

slide32

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

Classsification

Ranking

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

8

10

slide33

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

Classsification

Ranking

To lifes

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

8

10

slide34

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

Classsification

Ranking

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

Environment

8

10

slide35

Classification

Consequences for the environment:

  • Class 1 = unimportant

no contamination, localised effects

  • Class 2 = limited

simple contamination, localised effects

  • Class 3 = serious

simple contamination, widespread effects

  • Class 4 = very serious

heavy contamination

  • Class 5 = catastrophic

very heavy contamination, widespread effects

slide36

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

Classsification

Ranking

Priority

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

8

10

slide37

Classification

Ranking:

Ranking:

Estimate the probability of

an

accident

to

occur

Estimate the probability of

an

accident

to

occur

Weigh

up

the various consequence classes

,

Weigh

up

the various consequence classes

,

arriving at

a

classification of each hazard

arriving at

a

classification of each hazard

Classify the threats

in

the order

:

Classify the threats

in

the order

:

-

people

,

-

people

,

-

environment

,

-

environment

,

-

property

-

property

Give the risk object

an

overall class based on the

Give the risk object

an

overall class based on the

risk matrix

risk matrix

slide38

Classification

Consequences for property

  • Class 1 = unimportant < 0.5 Million US$
  • Class 2 = limited 0,5 - 1 Million US$
  • Class 3 = serious 1 - 5 Million US$
  • Class 4 = very serious 5 - 20 Million US$
  • Class 5 = catastrophic > 20 Million US$
slide39

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

Classsification

Ranking

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

Speed

8

10

slide40

Classification

Speed of development

  • Class 1 = easy and clear warning, localised effects, no damage
  • Class 2
  • Class 3 = Medium speed, spreading, some damage
  • Class 4
  • Class 5 = No warning, not recognisable until the effects are fully developed / immediate effects (explosion)
slide41

A B C D E

Very probableMore than once a year

5

4

Once in 1 - 10years

Quite probableOnce per 10 to 100 years

3

Once per 100 to 1000 years

2

Improbable

Less than once per 1000 years

1

Unimportant LimitedSeriousVery seriousCatastrophic

Risk Assessment

Probability

INCREASE

Consequences

slide42

Filling station

Storage tanks

Storage of LPG cylinders

slide43

Enschede, 13 May 2000

  • 18 people killed

STATISTICS

  • 947 injured
  • 2 missing
  • Destruction:
  • Entire factory
  • 400 houses
  • More than 1000 damaged
slide44

600 people

  • 1 400 houses
  • Entire factory

Risk Assessment

6

5

2

3

4

1

Object Operation Hazard Risk- Threatened Conse-

(quantity) type object quences

Fireworks factory

Storage and handling of explosives

Up to 100 tons

Catastrophic

Explosion

Identification

Evaluation

slide45

Risk Assessment

Seriousness Probability Priority Comments

13

7

8

9

10

11

12

L E P S

D

B

E

D

D

1

Very critical, or

unacceptable

Life Property

Environment Speed

7

9

Evaluation

8

10

slide46

5

4

3

2

1

Risk Assessment

A B C D E

Probability

Very probableMore than once a year

Once in 1 - 10years

Quite probableOnce per 10 to 100 years

Once per 100 to 1000 years

Improbable

Less than once per 1000 years

Consequences

Unimportant LimitedSeriousVery seriousCatastrophic

slide47

Disasters:

General observations

  • The negative impact is unacceptably high and could have been limited, if...
  • Hardly anybody had ever expected, that such an incident could occurre at all;
  • Accidents and disasters could have been prevented;
  • People are too often unaware of risk exposure, left alone and helpless; people suffer- unnecessarily !!!!
slide48

Citizens have the right to know,

  • if hazardous materials present a threat,
  • if they could be exposed to an avalanche or a landslide,
  • if ….

There are changes...

  • Citizens need to understand the possible impact
  • Citizens need to be informed about emergency plans and actions required in case of an emergency, and to have the capability for self protection
  • Citizens should know, understand and practise the local emergency response plan
slide49

There is an increase in

  • “Right-to-know” regulations world-wide - in particular in connection with environment and safety
  • Demand for information generated by public concern about exposures to hazards
  • Information by the media on health, safety and environmental issues
  • Mistrust in risk management
  • Public demand to participate in all phases of risk assessment and risk management as a full partner
slide50

Risk communication

From:

 RIGHT TO KNOW

to:

HUMAN RIGHT

slide51

Must be two-way

All concerns and perceptions have to be taken serious

Effective Risk Communication

  • Builds on mutual trust
  • Needs a basis of common values
  • Creates the potential for new developments in a community
slide52

Awareness and preparedness for emergencies should not be restricted to officials and emergency responders

The community potentially exposed to risks in case of emergencies:

Natural and technological disasters!

(Natural and technological disasters!)

  • Must have the right to know the risks
  • Needs to understand the possible impact
  • Needs to have the capability for self protection
  • Should know, understand, and practice the local emergency response plan
  • Needs to be adequately informed and guided during and after disasters
slide53

Risk Communication

… an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion among individuals, groups, and institutions ...

slide54

Effective Risk Communication

  • Sharing information and responsibility
  • Building mutual trust
  • Developing a common ground
  • Discussing together how an accident could occur, how it can be prevented, measures for mitigation
  • Clear information how people can get affected, without hiding or evading subjects
  • The parties should be open minded and willing to learn and teach
slide55

Barriers to Risk Communication

  • Disagreement about terms
  • Technical terms versus emotional perceptions
  • Complexity of information
  • Lack of trust, credibility, and empowerment
  • Lack of legal framework
  • Liability (legal constraints)
slide56

PREVENTION IS INCLUDED

  • Emergency management, chemical hazards, accident prevention and environmental protection are all related to quality of life - do not separate
  • Participation in understanding risks, development of programs to reduce risks and prevention of accidents allows direct action to improve quality of life
slide57

SHARED RESPONSIBILITY

  • Success requires sharing responsibility for the outcome
  • Requires shared information
  • Use of the information requires education and experience
  • Agreement on terms and process
  • Assumes open minds, willingness to learn and teach
  • Honesty and openness
slide58

Building community awareness (1)

  • Develop a communication plan before an accident occurs - communication must be established before an emergency
  • Define the community and the employees concerned with risk communication involve those who can be effected
  • Define local community contacts:Government, community and civic organisations, environmental groups, fire officials, civic leaders, schools, clubs, local media, businessand professional organisations, employees, etc.-
slide59

Building community awareness (2)

  • Provide a description of operations, hazard information, emergency plan, safety training programmes
  • Select an appropriate method of communication and a common language
  • Avoid technical/engineering terms. Explain the risks with descriptions that can be understood by the general public
  • Prepare appropriate communication lines before an accident occurs
slide60

OUTCOMES

  • At first it can be frightening
  • Accidents do happen - risk communication and plays an key role in mitigation
  • Increases community cooperation
  • All parties have a better understanding of prevention and response
slide61

Means and ways of Risk Communication

Information could be spread by:

  • fact sheets,
  • small group meetings,
  • advertisements,
  • slide presentation,
  • warning signs,
  • brochures,
  • employees publication

speeches

  • community newsletters,
  • pictures,
  • plant tours,
  • educational activities,
  • internet,
  • direct mails,
  • community open

houses

Media!

slide63

What is CAMEO?

CAMEOis a computer software primarily used:

  • For chemical emergency planning;
  • For chemical response; and
  • For regulatory compliance (e.g., SARA Title III (EPCRA), OPA, RCRA)
slide64

CAMEO

Computer Aided Management of Emergency Operations

Mapping Applications for Response and Planning of Local Operational Tasks

MARPLOT

ALOHA

Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres

CAMEO Components

The overall CAMEOsystem is a suite of three separate, integrated software applications:

slide65

CAMEO was developed for:

  • LEPCs
  • Emergency responders
  • Emergency planners
  • Chemical facilities
slide68

CAMEO Chemical Information Module

  • Contains Two Databases in Module
  • CAMEO’s Chemical Database
  • Response Information Data Sheets (RIDS)
  • Establishes Links between the Databases
slide71

CAMEO Companions, Modules, and Menus

  • Companion Applications

CAMEO

MARPLOT

ALOHA

  • Twelve Information Modules in CAMEO
  • Menus
  • Site Plan Viewer
slide72

CAMEO

has an extensive database with specific emergency response information for over 4,000 chemicals.

  • Limitations
    • Expand and update the chemical database
    • Simplify and broaden the importing and exporting of data
slide73

MARPLOT

General-purpose mapping application of objects and Census data

Links objects on maps to data in CAMEO and other programs

slide74

ALOHA

ALOHA is an air dispersion model used to evaluate hazardous chemical release scenarios

ALOHA can work with CAMEO information and MARPLOT mapping

slide75

CAMEO Modules

  • Toxic Release Inventory
  • Chemical Information Facilities
  • Incidents
  • Contacts
  • Storage Locations
  • Special Locations
  • Chemicals in Inventory/Transit
  • Resources
  • Routes
  • Screenings & Scenarios
  • Census Data
slide76

Module Relationship

Toxic Release Inventory

Chemicals in Inventory/Transit

Storage Locations

Chemical Information

Screening & Scenarios

Facilities

Routes

Incidents

Special Locations

Contacts

Resources

Census Data

slide77

Menus

  • File
  • Edit
  • View
  • Record
  • Utilities
  • Window
  • Help
  • Sharing