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Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
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  1. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Energy powerhouses Maddie Hughes, Izzie Gall, Erin Semple, Alex Capaldo, Alex Park

  2. Mitochondria

  3. Mitochondria • Power centers of a cell • Plant or animal • Provide energy for the cell  • Motion • Division • Secretion • Contraction • Present in all living cells • More concentrated in muscle cells • The reason animals require oxygen

  4. Mitochondria: Structure • Double membrane • Outer membrane • Simple phospholipid bilayer • Easy for molecules like ATP or sugar to penetrate • Smooth • Separates inner membrane space from vacuole • Inner membrane  • Cristae greatly increase the membrane's surface area • Site of ATP production from oxygen and sugar • Krebs/citric acid cycle 

  5. Mitochondria: Structure • Non-membrane spaces • Intermembrane space • Between outer and inner membranes • Contains energy before it is released to the cytoplasm/vacuole • Contains oxygen, water, CO2 on their way to cristae • Matrix • Within cristae • Contains enzymes used during Krebs cycle

  6. Chloroplasts

  7. Chloroplasts • Aid the mitochondria in energy production • Plant cells only • Contain chlorophyll • Absorbs light • Responsible for green coloration • Responsible for creation of oxygen

  8. Chloroplasts: Structure • Double membrane • Outer membrane • Simple phospholipid bilayer • Easy for molecules like ATP or sugar to penetrate • Smooth • Inner membrane • Regulates substances entering chloroplast • Smooth • Thylakoids • Location of photosynthesis (the "light" reactions) • Membrane disks • Equivalent of mitochondrial cristae • Arranged in grana (stacks)

  9. Chloroplasts: Structure • Non-membrane spaces •  Stroma • Space between thylakoid disks • Site of "dark" reactions of photosynthesis • Contains the enzymes required for these reactions

  10. Chloroplasts Create energy for the cell Convert light into ATP  Plant cells only Create O2 and carbs Double membrane  Krebs cycle  Takes place on thylakoids, separate from membranes Mitochondria Create energy for the cell Convert food energy into ATP Plant and animal cells Consume O2 and carbs Double membrane  Calvin cycle  Takes place on cristae, identical to the inner membrane

  11. Sources HyperPhysics. C.R. Knave/Georgia State University, 2005. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/Biology/mitochondria.html>. Sullivan, Jim. "Eucaryotic Cell Interactive Animation." 2006. Cells Alive. 31 Aug. 2009<http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm>. Experimental Biosciences: Introductory Laboratory Bios 211. David R. Caprette, Rice University, 25 June 2009. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. <http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/studies/mitochondria/mitotheory.html>.  "Chloroplasts." Kimball's Biology Pages. Ed. John W. Kimball. John W. Kimball, 10 August 2003. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/>.