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United Nations Project Management Skills Workshop (2 days) PowerPoint Presentation
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United Nations Project Management Skills Workshop (2 days)
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  1. United Nations Project Management Skills Workshop (2 days) 1

  2. At the end of the training, participants know: How to link new projects to the UN’s mandate and strategic framework The concept of the Project / Programme Management Cycle How to prepare projects for implementation – using the “results-chain” as a tool (see also “Logical Framework Matrix”) How these concepts apply to the Monitoring and Evaluation of projects Outputs of this Workshop

  3. This is supposed to…: Increase the quality of your projects … which in the end is meant to: Help to improve the performance of the UN overall Expected Accomplishment and Overall Objective of the Workshop

  4. Exercise 1: Introduction What is the point strategic project planning? 4

  5. The context of our projects.... Where our project (and the programme) are meant to help our organisation to fulfil its mission United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Where the benefits of an individual project are meant to complement the benefits of other projects Our Project Projects are used to create products and deliver business benefit 5 Martin Steinmeyer

  6. You need to make sure that.... United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to ... But really here!!! Our Project .. your project is not here... Martin Steinmeyer 6

  7. You also need to make sure that.... ... your project really has a chance of solving the problem you mean to address... United Nations(Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Our Project ... and thereby contributes to the objectives and mandates of the United Nations Martin Steinmeyer 7

  8. Has a defined start and an end; Has agreed, and well defined outputs and produces measurable effects (expected accomplishments); Has a balance between time, cost and quality; Has interrelated tasks, often grouped into phases; Has a temporary, often multidisciplinary project team brought together for the project; Might entail the involvement of people from other units or organizations. Characteristics of a Project 8

  9. Time Stakeholder Objectives Organisational Politics Cost Quality External Pressures The Project Context 9

  10. Structuring and facilitation of processes of change in order to produce outputs and accomplishments in the most effective and efficient way. Dealing with complexity and uncertainties related to the context and to human interactions; Dealing with the subjective perceptions and values of actors involved; Continuous collection and analysis of information, in order to take decisions and to make adaptations to achieve quality outputs. Project Management

  11. The Project Management Cycle Concept Phase Project Charter Development Phase Evaluation Phase Project Document Implementation Phase 11

  12. Develop „Intervention Logic“ (how will project address the problem?) Project Identification Identify the problem to be addressed Scope the Project Assemble Project Team Identify and analyse stakeholders Risk Management Project Finance The Project Charter Concept Phase 12

  13. Introducing: the Intervention Logic United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Overall / Goal Objectives Expected Accomplishment Physical and non physical means necessary to undertake activities Outputs Inputs Activities Martin Steinmeyer

  14. Levels of the Intervention Logic – Example United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Overall Goal / Objectives Expected Accomplishment Money, human resources, materials, equipment Outputs Inputs Activities Martin Steinmeyer

  15. Intervention logic during “planning” and “implementation” United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Overall Goal / Objectives Planning Expected Accomplishment Implementation Money, human resources, materials, equipment Outputs Inputs Activities Martin Steinmeyer

  16. Scoping the Project- example (i) In Scope of this project management skills workshop will be: • Provision of practical tools, techniques and methods to manage projects; • Use of harmonized terminology (with RBB) • Refresher programme for some –new information for others; • Work with ‘real life’ projects; • A workshop manual and handouts; • Work in plenary as well as small group sessions.

  17. Scoping the Project- example (ii) Out of Scope of this project management skills workshop are: • Project finance and bids • Project management software • Management of project teams, teambuilding exercises and methods.

  18. Exercise: The first approach to your project In your groups, please: • Clarify the background & the problem(s) the project is meant to address • Draft a first version of your project’s intervention logic: • The Overall Goal / Objective • The Expected Accomplishment • The Outputs • The Activities • Define / refine the scope of your project (borderline cases) Martin Steinmeyer

  19. Objectives (i) 19

  20. Programme, Project, Component… 20

  21. Stakeholders (i) ...are any individual/s, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project. They may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of the project. 21

  22. Stakeholder Analysis Rest of the Organisation Finance Department Staff UN Project Management Training: Stakeholders Project Managers Staff Development Unit Trainer Team 22

  23. Stakeholders (ii) • Beneficiaries: Those who benefit from the implementation of the project • Target group/s The group/entity who will be immediately and positively affected by the project (outcome level) • Project Partners: Those who help to implement the project (output level) • And finally: “Troublemakers”: Those who can give you grief... 23

  24. Stakeholder Analysis • List all relevant stakeholders. • Who is the target group? • Who are the beneficiaries? • Who are the project partners? • Who might have a positive/negative impact on the project? • Who might be affected by the project negatively? 24

  25. Stakeholder Analysis (i) 25

  26. Stakeholder Analysis (iiii)Identifying Stakeholder Expectations 26

  27. Stakeholder Analysis (ii) 27

  28. Group Exercise: Stakeholder Analysis In your groups, please: • Brainstorm and list all relevant stakeholders • Pick two (2) of our three (3) analysis tools (map, matrix, SWOT) and apply to your project • Determine for your project • Who is / are the target group/s for your project? • Who can you use as project partners? • Who are potential "troublemakers"? • Consider: What changes to your original project design should you make? Martin Steinmeyer

  29. Stakeholder Analysis (i) X Q A B C F Z M Venn diagram: the size of the circle depicts the influence of the stakeholder; the closeness or distance of the circles depict the relationships between the stakeholders 29

  30. Totally supportive Moderately supportive Moderately Against Strongly Against Neutral X Y A Q Z Stakeholder Analysis (iii) Rank your stakeholders along this continuum: 30

  31. Risk Assessment Matrix 31

  32. Identifying Responses to Risks Prince 2 Risk Response Categories: • Prevention: Eliminate source of risk, stop risk from happening • Reduction: Reduce probability of risk happening • Acceptance: Deciding to “do nothing” about a risk • Contingency: Prepare for risk to happen by identifying contingent time, money, actions • Transference: Give risk to someone else, e.g. insurance company, contractor

  33. Group Exercise: Risk Analysis In your groups, please: • Brainstorm on the main risks your project is facing • Develop a Risk Assessment Matrix for your project • Decide how you will manage the identified risks in your project, using the 5 risk response categories Martin Steinmeyer

  34. The Project Charter • A Project Charter is a concise and clear framework that summarizes the work done in the concept phase of the project. • It is a presentation format for project proposals. • Project proposals are budget proposals. 34

  35. Checklist for Drawing Up a Project Charter What is the organisational rationale for the project? Are the project objectives (outputs and expected accomplishment) clear and unambiguous? What actions need to be done? Who is going to do them? What resources are required? What is not going to be done?  Is everything feasible and realistic`? Are outputs, expected accomplishment and obcectives „measurable“? If so what measures should be used? 35

  36. Project Charter (example) Project Name: Background / Problem to be addressed: Intervention Logic (Project Objectives, Expected Accomplishment and Outputs): Scope (point out „borderline issues“): Team/ Resource roles: Who does what? Project Risk Assessment: Which ones have we anticipated? How are we planning to react to the major risks (design!!!) (Project Milestones: What needs to happen when? Include project review dates in this section) (Achievement Measurement: How will we know if we‘ve succeeded?) 36

  37. ? Project Proposal: quality criteria (example) • Relevance relates to whether the project addresses the real problems of the intended beneficiaries. • Feasibility relates to whether the project objectives can be effectively achieved. • Sustainability relates to whether project benefits will continue to flow after the external support has ended. 37

  38. Group Exercise: Drafting the “Project Charter” In your groups, please prepare your projects for presentation to “the board”: • Review the project design against the three quality criteria (relevance, feasibility, sustainability) • Make adjustments where necessary • Fill the different sections of the project charter (Project Name, Background, “Intervention Logic”, Scope) • Agree on who should present the project concept to “the board” (4 minutes of presentation) Martin Steinmeyer

  39. Planning Resources: People Material Equipment Money Refine the scope tobalance T/C/Q (develop the log-frame matrix) List tasks and activities in relevant sequence Develop an efficient scheduleand budget for resources Ensure approval of plansby relevant stakeholders Review/ Audit The DevelopmentPhase 39

  40. The Logical Framework Matrix (LogFrame) Sources of Verification InterventionLogic Assumptions (Risks) Indicators Overall Goal / Objective Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Means Cost Status Quo ‘... IF results are delivered, AND assumptions hold true, THEN the project purpose will be achieved ...’ Martin Steinmeyer

  41. Workplan Budget Budget Workplan Budget Workplan 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser 5000 5500 1250 1750 3750 4250 750 750 400 400 850 1100 2300 3100 LogFrame: Planning & Management Tool LogFrame Activity and resource scheduling Results-based workplans & budgets Martin Steinmeyer

  42. Scheduling Scheduling aims at producing a sequence for the activities to be carried out to meet the project key dates and objectives - and forms the basis for planning resources and for monitoring. Break down main activities into tasks and subtasks Think about dependencies 42

  43. Task A Task B Task C Task D Task B Task A Task D Task C Diagrams to Show the Order of Project Tasks: Network Diagrams 43

  44. Task A Task B Task A Task B Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks Tasks can be related in different ways: Finish to Start : The end of the predecessor and the start of the successor are related. Example: Task B cannot start until task A has finished. Start to Start : The starts of predecessor and successor are related. Example: Task B can start at the same time/ shortly after the start of task A. 44

  45. Task A Task B Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks Tasks can be related in different ways: Finish to Finish : The ends of predecessor and succesor are related Example: Task B can finish at the same time/ shortly after Task B has finished. In addition lead-time before an activity as well as lag-time after an activity can be defined 45

  46. Critical Path Method The Critical Path Method displays activities and events of a project graphically as a network. It helps to identify which activities are critical to maintaining the schedule (those lying on the „critical path“) – and which are not. 46

  47. Critical Path Analysis Analysis and planning steps: • Identify and list all (sub)activities • Determine the duration of each (sub)activity • Identify the sequence in which the (sub)activities have to be carried out (predecessor) – and their interdependence • Draw the diagram (nodes and arrows –an „activity on arrow“ diagram) • Identify the critical path 47

  48. An Example for CPM 48

  49. D 3m 5 2 G 4m A 5m C 2m J 1m 8 7 E 2m F 3m 4 1 I 1m B 1m 3 6 H 2m CPM Diagram: An Example The critical path is the path that takes longest. Delays of the activities on this path will cause the project to be delayed. 49 Adapted from Baker, S.L.

  50. Gantt Charts Gantt charts are another technique that can be used for scheduling. They are bar graphs that help plan and monitor project development or resource allocation on a horizontal time scale. 50