Module 1 - Workshop 1
1. Introduction The basic principle behind the strategy of Tourism For All is the concept of “Universal Accessibility”. Accessibility allows everyone in a society to access, use and enjoy its facilities in a normal, efficient and safe fashion. The concept of universal accessibility places special emphasis on people’s differing capabilities – physical, sensorial,, intellectual, organic- so as to encouragethe creation of safer, better and more comfortable environments and services for everyone without jeopardizing their aesthetic appeal. More comfortable spaces are not “orthopaedic”; they’re better quality.
1. Introduction Any one of us may experience ability loss during our lifetime – during a pregnancy, when pushing a pram, on suffering an injury etc.–and it is at these times that we appreciate accessible and easy to use facilities, products and services. In the final analysis what we΄re reallytalking aboutis safety, comfort and quality.
1. Introduction The terms Accessible Tourism and Tourism for All express the need to include groups that have specific requirements when accessing tourist facilities and services. http://es.youtube.com/watch?v=Bb7GYhyw5Cs
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for the public – Tourists: • Improvements achieved as a result of accessible design mean improvements in everyone’squality of life as they reduce the physical or mental effort required to carry out all kinds of activities associated with moving around, enjoying free time, eating out and finding accommodation. • As universal accessibility is a great advantage for all consumers using tourist products, it provides an extraordinary opportunity to target certain sectors of the market: the elderly and the functionallydiverse or just children and anyone who requires special attention for their own particular reasons.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for the public – Tourists: • The elderly constitute one sector of the population that is dedicating more and more time to leisure activities and taking advantage of their free time. They spend a great deal of this time consuming tourist products. However their age means they have different needs compared to the rest of the population: special diets, greater fatigue, gradual loss of sight and hearing and mobility difficulties.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for the public – Tourists : • As far as this area is concerned, Spain is becoming one of the most popular tourist destinations for the elderly in Europe. And these tourists don’t just come to visit; they buy themselves a home here and stay for good. Each person that settles in Spain may generate between two and five visits by relatives or their own carers annually; those that settle here also travel locally and internationally. At the present moment they don’t enjoy the sort of accessibility they might do in countries such as Germany, Sweden, Holland and Denmark, amongst others, where this area has received more attention.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for the public – Tourists : • From an exclusively commercial point of view there are huge business opportunities in improving accessibility for the general public and, of course, for a particular sector of the population that is growing all over Europe. This area can also bring important benefits to society. Improved accessibility means greatly enhanced quality of life for those who experience difficulties as tourists. In many cases these people are unable to access tourist and leisure time activities; adequate access removes the barriers that have separated them from society.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for travel destinations and companies: The public at large obviously benefits from more accessible tourism facilities. But there are also huge benefits for the tourism sector and tourist destinations according to the document published by CERMI in 2003 on Accessible Tourism (see Bibliography). Here are some of these benefits: • Increase in market share Companies capable of winning over these customers will significantly increase their market share and profitability. Both companies and destinations entering this market will also be assured of a more secure future.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for travel destinations and companies : •ImageEnhancement The image of a company or destination is as important as its future and profitability. The nature of the destination itself does not determine its image as a tourist product. Emotive elements such as the experiences and enjoyment to be had at the destination decide how the public perceives it. Thus an image that is directed at the public at large and that doesn’t make any distinctions or exclude anyone contributes to the development of the destination as a tourist product and also to the development of tourism for all.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for travel destinations and companies : • Customerdoubling According to a handbook published by the European Commission entitled “Accessibility for Disabled Tourists in Europe”, the statistics on the tourist potential of European citizens with disabilities are inconclusive: each visit by a disabled person generates 0.5 visits by a carer. Thus the disabled tourism sector might be termed “multi-customer”.
2. Change as a business opportunity Benefits of Accessible Tourism Benefits for travel destinations and companies : • Off seasonality Gaining a share of this sector of the market also makes it possible to off set the heavily seasonal nature of the tourism industry. This is because a great number of the disabled do not have work commitments. According to European Union statistics (Eurostat), 51% of the people in this sector have no paid employment and depend on disability or old age pensions.
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms • According to the WHO (World Health Organization), a disability “is a restricted ability or complete inability to perform a task within limits regarded as normal for a human being. Under this definition, such limitations must be due to impairment”. • http://www.who.int/topics/disabilities/en/ • http://www.godtube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=8cf08faca5dd9ea45513
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms The following is a list of the different types of physical diversity. They may create special difficulties in ensuring the quality, safety and comfort of tourist products. These are the main types: 1.2.1. Physical functional diversity 1.2.2. Visual functional diversity 1.2.3. Auditory functional diversity 1.2.4. Intellectual functional diversity 1.2.5. Organic functional diversity
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms • 3.1. Physical functional diversity • Physical disability means a significant reduction in the ability to move one or more parts of the body. The term may refer to reduced movement, lack of co-ordination, muscle tone or balance disorders. • The physically diverse fall into one of the following groups: • Users of electric wheel chairs • Users of manual wheel chairs • Users with co-ordination difficulties
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms 3.2. Visual functional diversity There is a difference between the blind and those with defective vision : Blindness: those who perceive very little or no light at all and are therefore unable to use it to perform everyday tasks. Defective vision: those with significantly reduced sight, but who have sufficient vision to enable them to orient themselves and perform everyday tasks.
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms 3.3. Auditory functional diversity The hearing impaired havelittle or no ability to hear and experience difficulties communicating, acquiring information… We should distinguish between the deaf and those with low hearing levels.
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms 3.4. Intellectual functional diversity These are people with lower levels of comprehension, orientation and decision making abilities. Their condition may be caused by advanced age or limited cognitive ability. Information and directions given them must be simple and easy to understand.
3. Functional Diversity and its Diverse Forms 3.5. Organic functional diversity These are people whose ability to perform everyday tasks is limited as a result of chronic illness. It may affect their general functional capability or a particular aspect of their lives. They may suffer from respiratory problems or allergies and often have special dietary requirements.
4. Role Play – think what you’d do if…. • Experiencing ability loss : • Simulation of experiences of tourists with different functional limitations (creation of different situations tourists might find themselves in and an analysis of the difficulties they might encounter and the possible solutions). • Using technical aids and simulated practice in buildings and urban environments.
5. Legislation • International initiatives • European legislation • Each country should include their current legislation. • Spanish legislation • Current legislation in each autonomous region • AENOR accessibility standards
5. Legislation • International initiatives: whilst there are international programmes and declarations on functional disability, detailed analysis reveals a lack of regulations. • European legislation: there is no unified code guaranteeing universal accessibility in Europe. There is concern over the issue however, and a number of different bodies and the European Union itself are creating reports, forums and networks with the aim of establishing European standards that will guarantee universal accessibility.
5. Legislation • Each country should enter the current legislation. • Spanish legislation: Spanish authorities developed legislation in the eightiesand then the Autonomous Regionsbegan to draft their own. Bill 13/1982 for the Social Integration of the Disabled was passed on the 7th April 1982 and Royal Decree 556/1989 of the 19th May 1989 set minimum standards for building access.
5. Legislation • Current legislation in the autonomous regions : in Spain the Autonomous Regions are responsible for enforcing universal accessibility laws and decrees. • AENOR accessibility standards : these standards are not mandatory and supplement the legislation of the Autonomous Regions. Aspects not covered by regional laws are covered by the AENOR standards.
6. The tourism service chain The development and promotion of a Destination for All requires the co-operation of both Public and Private sectors. Not only public entities must meet accessibility standards; private ones must also comply so that the functionally diverse may enjoy each and every tourist resource. The ideaof SERVICES FOR ALL must have a presence in all the departments of all the institutions and in all sectors of society so that the situation can be normalized. All the different sectors of society must embrace the development of this concept: tourism, culture, sport, town planning, public thoroughfares, transport, etc.
6. The tourism service chain • Only the implementation of the accessibility chain will ensure that a destination is accessible: reaching the destination (transport), finding accommodation, visiting the city (public thoroughfares, town planning, guided tour services…), visiting cultural and leisure time resources (both public and private)… • Resources and services that make up the chain: • Information • Transport • Accommodation • Restaurants • Cultural and leisure time resources • Travel agencies • Tourist development offices • …
6. The tourism service chain • Below is a list of the criteria that must be borne in mind in a property providing accommodation. They appear in the order in which they enhance the customers’ comfort:
8. Practical Examples • Ability loss simulation in Internet : • Point 1 - www.techdis.ac.uk/resources/sites/2/simdis/index.htm* • 2. Role Play – Tourism for All website– reading material and online multiple choice test • Point 2 - www.tourismforall.org.uk • There’s a diagnosis form on the website for the Accessible Tourism Programme in Euskadi.
Module 2 - Workshop 2
1. Legislation 1.1.1. International programmes and declarations on accessible tourism. There are no international standards or regulations on Tourism for All. There are however a number of Programmes and Declarations that lay the foundations for the development of accessibility in tourism and list the rights of the disabled. These programmes and declarations attempt to create opportunities for the disabled to gain access to the same services and leisure time activities as everyone else in society although they don’t provide a blueprint for achieving this goal.
1. Legislation 1.1.1. International programmes and declarations on accessible tourism. The following are the most important international documents on the subject: • The UNO (United Nations Organization)proclaimed the “Declaration of Rights of the Disabled” in 1975. The document refers to the need to provide those belonging to this sector with independent access to all areas of leisure time, social, professional and daily activities.
1. Legislation 1.1. International programmes and declarations on accessible tourism. Paragraph 134 of the 1982 World Action Programme for the Disabled states that all member nations must endeavour to provide disabled persons with access to restaurants, cinemas, theatres and libraries as well as holiday resorts, sports stadiums, hotels, beaches and other recreational areas. It also argues that tourism authorities, travel agencies, hotels, voluntary organizations and other bodies involved in the organization of recreational activities should offer their services to everyone and bear in mind the special needs of the disabled.
1. Legislation 1.1. International programmes and declarations on accessible tourism. • The World Tourism Organization (WTO) issued a Declaration in Manila in 1980 detailing the obligation to provide tourists with the best possible conditions without discrimination. • The WTO alsopassed a special interest resolution, number 284,at a General Meeting in Buenos Aires in 1991. The preamble of the resolution sets out the reasons for introducing accessible tourism and there is also an appendix entitled “Accessible Tourism for the Disabled in the Nineties”. The European Union has taken the following steps to develop Accessible Tourism.
1. Legislation 1.2.. Legislation and other European initiatives • On the 21 November 1991 attendees at the European Conference for Transport Ministers drew up a project for a resolution on recommendations for accessibility to travel and means of transport for disabled persons. • The Parliament and Council Guideline 2001/85/CE ofthe20th of November 2001must also be highlighted as an important measure. It stipulates the special fittings required by passenger vehicles with eight or more places as well as the driver. It modifies the previous guidelines 70- 156-156-CEE and 97-27-CE. • The European Economic and Social Committee Report INT/173 entitled “Accessible and Socially Sustainable Tourism for All".
1. Legislation 1.2. Legislation and other European initiatives. • “A Framework for Co-operation on the Future of European Tourism” (COM(2001) 665 final). A European Commission report to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Regions Committee issued on the 13.11.2001. • “UnionMeasures Affecting Tourism” (COM (2001) 668 final). A report by the European Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Regions Committee issued on the13.11.2001. • European Parliament and CouncilRegulation (EU) nº 261/2004, 11 February 2004 This regulation established the general guidelines for compensation and assistance for airline passengers in cases of denied boarding, cancellation and excessively delayed flights. Regulation nº 295/91 (EEU) was repealed. This referred to issues related to accessibility to transport and was therefore relevant to Tourism for All.
1. Legislation • 1.3. Legislation in each country • Each country should insert the relevant information • Spanish legislation • Current legislation in the Basque Country. • AENOR accessibility standards.
1. Legislation • 1.3. Legislation for each country • Spanish legislation • http://www.mepsyd.es/politica-social/discapacidad/informacion/accesibilidad-universal/mas-informacion.html
1. Legislation • 1.3. Legislation for each country • Current Basque Country legislation. • LEY 20/1997, 4 December 1997, Promotion of Accessibility. • The aim of this law was to guarantee access to the urban environment: public spaces, buildings, means of transport, and information and communication systems. It sought to facilitate their use and enjoyment by all citizens and in particular those with reduced mobility, communication difficulties or any other psychic or sensorial limitation of a temporary or permanent nature.
1. Legislation • 1.3. Legislation for each country • Current Basque Country legislation. • DECREE 68/2000, 11 April 2000. • This bill specifies technical access standards in urban environments, public spaces, buildings and communication and information systems. • The decree has five appendices: • 1. Anthropometric parameters • 2. Urban environments • 3. Buildings • 4. Communication • 5. Alterations, enlargements or modifications to housing developments and buildings.
1. Legislation • 1.3. Legislation for each country • AENOR accessibility standards. • AENOR providesgeneral guidelineson disability: • UNE 170001 Criteria for facilitating access to the environment. • 170001-1: DALCO prerequisites (walk, look, find and talk). • 170001-2:Universal accessibility management system. • It also provides specific guidelines.