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Closed Loop Fumigation of a Concrete Elevator Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. Dr. Carol Jones Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Oklahoma State University Edmond Bonjour and Randy Beeby Stored Products Research and Education Center Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

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closed loop fumigation of a concrete elevator broken arrow oklahoma
Closed Loop Fumigation of a Concrete ElevatorBroken Arrow, Oklahoma

Dr. Carol Jones

Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Oklahoma State University

Edmond Bonjour and Randy Beeby

Stored Products Research and Education Center

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University

Mark Fultz, Manager

Hansen Mueller Grain Co., Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

challenges
Challenges
  • Fumigation safety is a concern to neighbors and to employees
  • Conventional methods of phosphine fumigation put workers and people in close proximity in danger
  • Improper fumigation leads to insect resistance
goals of this project
Goals of this Project
  • Seek a method to improve safety of fumigating with phosphine
  • Seek a method to decrease the amount of fumigant required
  • Seek a method to increase the concentration distribution throughout the grain bins
common fumigation methods and negative effects
Common Fumigation Methods and Negative Effects
  • Probe and Tarp: exposure during tarping
  • Automatic Dispenser: pellets spill from buckets and release gas in unwanted areas, shrinkage caused from turning and moving grain
  • Gravity Fumigation: little control of where gas may go

Each method offers increased risk of exposure during insertion of fumigant into the grain.

proposed method
Proposed Method
  • Closed Loop Fumigation System in a concrete silo
  • Example of a J-System patented by James Cook in 1980.
  • Consists of:
    • Sealing air leaks in storage structure
    • Installing low pressure low volume centrifugal blower re-circulating air-gas mixture from headspace of grain into base of silo
    • Installing pipes from fan to blower and back into silos
closed loop basic idea
Closed Loop Basic Idea

Pressured base ducts force gas mixture upward through grain bulk providing better gas distribution through grain.

Headspace

Grain Bulk

Blower

slide9

Closed loop system installed in one half of the elevator while the other half remained unchanged for a conventional method fumigant application

Conventional

CLF

8660 MT capacity

(120,000 bu)

dosage phosphine pellets
Dosage: Phosphine Pellets
  • Manager chose his normal dosage rate of 500 pellets/1000 ft3 which is his normal dosage rate. Both sides of the elevator were treated the same.
    • CLF side: pellets distributed on top of the grain.
    • Conventional side: pellets were inserted into the grain as it was loaded into the bin
monitoring
Monitoring
  • Monitoring fumigation: top, bottom, and middle of bin
monitoring12
Monitoring
  • Electronic gas meters were used to measure phosphine concentration every 4 hours for the first 32 hours and every 10 hours for the next 88 hours.
results
Results

CLF BIN

CONVENTIONAL BIN

200 PPM

slide14

A closed loop system was installed in one half of the elevator while the other half remained unchanged for a conventional method fumigant application

Conventional

CLF

8660 MT capacity

(120,000 bu)

installation of clf
Installation of CLF

Seal Inner Vents

Bin Diagram of Elevator Facility

installation of clf16
Installation of CLF
  • Seal silos as completely as possible…inner vents to silos not included in loop
installation of clf17
Installation of CLF

Seal Outer Vents

Bin Diagram of Elevator Facility

installation of clf18
Installation of CLF
  • Seal silos as completely as possible…outer vents
installation of clf19
Installation of CLF
  • Seal silos as completely as possible...access openings
proposed method for study
Proposed Method for Study

Headhouse

Bin Diagram of Elevator Facility

Install Fan on top of Bin 6 (outside of head house)

proposed method for study21
Proposed Method for Study
  • Blower mounted outside on top of one bin adjacent to the head house.
  • 1/3 HP supplying 320 cfm
proposed method for study22
Proposed Method for Study
  • Installing pipes from fan to blower and back into silos

Down man lift shaft to ground level using 3 inch PVC sewage pipe

Flexible hose from fan through window to man lift shaft

proposed method for study23
Proposed Method for Study
  • Installing pipes from fan to blower and back into silos
slide24

After Fumigation

  • Blower discharge piping was disconnected and the blower was used to evacuate the fumigant from the CLF system and bins.
  • Evacuation can be accomplished when the danger to workers or to residents around the elevator is the least.
  • Gas can be discharged 120 ft. above ground level reducing danger
slide25

Closed Loop Fumigation

    • Installation costs
    • Less fumigant
    • Less labor
    • Less worker exposure and health costs
  • Conventional Fumigation
    • Turning costs and product shrinkage
    • More fumigant
    • More labor
    • More bin entry required of workers causing health risk and higher insurance rates
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Closed loop fumigation was more successful since it reached the desired 200 ppm for 100 hours. Conventional fumigation did not reach this level.
  • ¾ of the fumigant could have been saved in this elevator
  • Closed loop fumigation is ultimately cheaper
  • Closed loop fumigation is safer than conventional fumigation when carried out properly
closed loop fumigation of a concrete elevator broken arrow oklahoma29
Closed Loop Fumigation of a Concrete ElevatorBroken Arrow, Oklahoma

Dr. Carol Jones

Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Oklahoma State University

Edmond Bonjour and Randy Beeby

Stored Products Research and Education Center

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

Oklahoma State University

Mark Fultz, Manager

Hansen MuellerGrain Co., Broken Arrow, Oklahoma