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Mainstreaming Gender in the Production of Labour Statistics. Workshop on Household Surveys and Measurement of Labour Force with Focus on Informal Economy Maseru, Lesotho, 14-18 April 2008. Overview. Need for labour statistics Quality of labour statistics

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mainstreaming gender in the production of labour statistics

Mainstreaming Gender in the Production of Labour Statistics

Workshop on Household Surveys and Measurement of Labour Force with Focus on Informal Economy

Maseru, Lesotho, 14-18 April 2008

overview
Overview
  • Need for labour statistics
  • Quality of labour statistics
  • Gender mainstreaming to improve quality of data
  • What is gender mainstreaming in statistical production
  • How to mainstream gender into statistical production
  • Concluding remarks
the need for official labour statistics
The need for official labour statistics

Official labour statistics are essential to:

  • Assess current situation of the labour market and the situation of those in the labour force including: working conditions, rights at work, participation in decision-making, industrial relations, etc
  • Identify and quantify issues in the labour market so that policies and action plans can be designed and formulated to meet set targets and goals
  • Monitor progress towards set targets and goals
quality of labour statistics
Quality of labour statistics

Quality of statistical data depends largely on

  • Relevance to user’s needs
  • Accuracy
  • Timeliness and punctuality
  • Accessibility and clarity
  • Comparability
  • Coherence
gender mainstreaming to improve quality
Gender mainstreaming to improve quality

Goal of gender mainstreaming in statistical production

  • To ensure that statistics adequately capture and reflect existing differences and inequalities in the situation of women and men in all areas of life

Goal of gender mainstreaming in labour statistics

  • To ensure that labour statistics adequately capture and reflect women’s and men’s access to and participation in the labour force as well as the outputs and returns from their participation

Overarching goal

  • To improve the quality of the statistics produced in terms of: relevance, accuracy, clarity.
what gender mainstreaming implies
What gender mainstreaming implies

Roles, norms, expectations, aspirations associated with being female or male

Gender mainstreaming implies

  • Taking into account gender-based factors at all stages in the statistical production

Gender mainstreaming DOES NOT imply

  • A focus on women only. It implies a focus on the relative situation of both women and men in society
  • It does not mean to disaggregate statistics by sex. It goes beyond sex disaggregation
why the focus on gender
Why the focus on gender

Distinction between Sex and Gender

  • Sex is not the same as gender
  • Sex refers to relatively fixed biological differences between women and men
  • Gender refers to socially constructed differences between sexes, that is, roles and responsibilities assigned by groups to women and men on the basis of their sex
  • Gender differences may be changed
  • Sex differences are fixed and unchangeable
why the focus on gender8
Why the focus on gender

Gender-based factors shape work patterns

why the focus on gender9
Why the focus on gender

Gender-based factors lead to various forms of labour market segregation

  • Entry to/exit from the labour market
    • Labour force, Employment, Unemployment, Labour turnover
  • Types of economic activities carried out
    • Occupations, industries, status in employment, institutional sector, size of establishment, place of work, occupational injuries, diseases and fatalities
  • Labour inputs
    • Hours worked, work schedules, absenteeism
  • Returns to labour
    • Wages, overtime payments, fringe benefits, social security benefits, regular and irregular payments

Sex is a proxy to capture the impact of gender-based factors

why the focus on gender10
Why the focus on gender

Gender-based factors also impact the production of statistics

  • Issues identified as priorities requiring data
  • Methods developed for data collection and processing
  • Tabulations produced
  • Analysis conducted
  • Dissemination formats

Sex is an appropriate proxy for gender to the extent that

  • Issues address gender concerns in population
  • Methods explicitly take into account possible gender biases
  • Analysis examines underlying causes of gender differences
  • Dissemination targets relevant groups
why the focus on gender11
Why the focus on gender

Gender-based factors also impact the production of statistics

how to mainstream gender into statistics
Consider gender-based factors at all stages of productionHow to mainstream gender into statistics

Identify key issues or concerns

Determine the statistics needed

Assess quality

of existing data

and sources

Identify data gaps

Identify new sources

Specify methodological improvements

Collect/compile the statistics needed

Tabulate

Analyze

Disseminate

how to mainstream gender into statistics13
Statistical production

Mainstreaming gender

How to mainstream gender into statistics

Identify key issues or concerns

Determine the statistics needed

Assess quality

of existing data

and sources

Identify data gaps

Identify new sources

Specify methodological improvements

Collect/compile the statistics needed

Tabulate

Analyze

Disseminate

Consider gender concerns,

policy goals and causes of

gender differences

Consider social and cultural

factors that can produce

gender-biases in data collection

Highlight gender issues,

Shed light on underlying causes

stage 1 issue identification
Statistical production

Mainstreaming gender

Stage 1: Issue identification

Consider gender concerns,

policy goals and causes of

gender differences

Identify key issues or concerns

example issue identification
Example: Issue identification

Consider gender equality goals and policy priorities

1997 SADC Declaration on Gender and Development

2007 SADC Draft protocol on Gender and Development

  • Article 7: Productive resources and employment
    • Multiple roles for women
    • Access to property and resources
    • Equal access to employment
  • Article 17: Monitoring and evaluation

Member States shall, by 2015, develop, monitor and evaluate systems and plans setting out targets, indicators and time frames based on this Protocol. Each SADC country shall collect and analyse baseline data against which progress in achieving targets will be monitored.

Basis for National Gender Policies & Gender Action Plans

example issue identification16
Example: Issue identification

Consider gender equality goals and policy priorities

2007 SADC Draft protocol on Gender and Development

Article 7: Productive resources and employment

Equal access to employment

(a) equal pay for equal work and equal remuneration for jobs of

equal value for women and men;

(b) the eradication of occupational segregation and all forms of

employment discrimination;

(c) the recognition of the economic value of, and protection of,

women engaged in domestic work; and

(d) the appropriate minimum remuneration of women formally

engaged in domestic work.

slide17

Example: Issue identification

Underlying causes

Consequences

Sex segregation

in education

Different returns in

wages/salaries

Unequal sharing of

family responsibilities

Gender issue

Different security of

employment

Occupational

segregation

Women’s reproductive

role

Different career

opportunities

Employers’ prejudices

Different roles in

decision making

Individual choices,

preferences

Limited role models

for future generations

stage 2 determine needed statistics
Statistical production

Mainstreaming gender

Stage 2: Determine needed statistics

Consider gender concerns,

policy goals and causes of

gender differences

Determine the statistics needed

slide19

Example: Determine needed statistics

Consequences

Underlying causes

Sex segregation

in education

Different returns in

Earnings, benefits

  • Educational attainment
  • Tertiary education by field of study
  • Earnings
  • Benefits (social security, pension)
  • Employed population by sex & detailed occupation groups

Unequal sharing of

family responsibilities

Different security of

employment

Occupational

segregation

  • Marital status
  • Number of children and age
  • Family members requiring care
  • Status in employment
  • Type of contract

Women’s reproductive role

Different roles in

decision making

  • Marital status
  • Number of children and age
stage 3 assemble the statistics needed
Statistical production

Mainstreaming gender

Stage 3: Assemble the statistics needed

Assess quality

of existing data

and sources

Identify data gaps

Identify new sources

Specify methodological improvements

Collect/compile the statistics needed

Consider social and cultural

factors that can produce

biases in data collection

stage 3 assemble the statistics needed21
Stage 3: Assemble the statistics needed

Review concepts and methods used in data collection

  • Coverage and enumeration frame: Consider relevant enumeration units where women may be overrepresented
    • Small enterprises, mobile units
  • Sample design: Consider that gender differentials in specific variables may require over-sampling in one or more strata
    • Gender differentials among ethnic minorities
  • Concepts, definitions and classifications: Review adequacy
    • Coverage of definitions, capture secondary & tertiary activities
    • Classification detail
  • Reference period
    • Consider timing of seasonal activities
  • Questionnaire and language: Consider choice of words, skip patterns
    • Give examples of activities to better capture women’s work
example nigeria census 2006
Example: Nigeria –Census 2006

Question wording and skip pattern miss secondary economic activities

  • 17: if Homemaker, skip: “end interview”.
  • Alternative:
    • 17b: list secondary activities
    • If response is “no” on 17a and 17b, then end interview; otherwise record answers for 17b, 18 and 19
example pakistan labour force survey 2005 06
Example: Pakistan –Labour Force Survey 2005-06

Captures both primary and secondary activity, including production of goods for own consumption…

slide27

Stage 3: Assemble the statistics needed

Review concepts and methods used in data collection (cont)

  • Publicity campaign
    • Concepts where biases predominate: definition of work
  • Enumerator hiring and training
    • Gender balance in hiring
    • Focus training on meaning and use of concepts relevant to gender issues
    • Raise awareness among enumerators of sex-based stereotypes
  • Respondent selection
    • Consider impact of male/female respondent
    • Consider presence of other persons during interview
  • Checking & imputation
    • Avoid imputations based on gender stereotypes, ie: coding of occupational groups
stage 4 analyse and disseminate statistics
Statistical production

Mainstreaming gender

Stage 4: Analyse and disseminate statistics

Tabulate

Analyze

Disseminate

Highlight gender issues,

Shed light on underlying causes

slide31

Example: Data analysis and presentation

Source: Labour Force Survey, Spring 2005, Office for National Statistics, UK

slide32

Example: Data analysis and presentation

Source: Labour Force Survey, Spring 2005, Office for National Statistics, UK

slide33

Example: Data analysis and presentation

Source: Labour Force Survey, Spring 2005, Office for National Statistics, UK

slide34

Concluding remarks

  • Gender mainstreaming in labour statistics is about making more accurate and relevant statistics
  • Gender mainstreaming requires consideration of gender-based factors at all stages in the production of labour statistics
    • From planning and design
    • Through methods, field operations and data processing
    • To data tabulation, analysis and presentation
food for thought
Food for thought
  • Have we reviewed our data collection procedures to assess the extent to which we are accurately capturing women’s and men’s employment situations?
  • What have we reviewed?
  • What do we need to review?
  • How can we improve our current practices?
slide37

References

  • Engendering Population Census in South and West Asia: Collected Papers (UNFPA, 2004)
  • Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change (Statistics Sweden,1996)
  • Gender and Statistics Briefing Note: Introduction (UNSD and OSAGI, 2001)
  • Gender and Statistics Briefing Note: Production of Statistics (UNSD and OSAGI, 2001)
  • Incorporating gender issues in labour statistics (ILO, STAT Working papers)
  • Regional Training of Trainers Workshop on Gender Sensitization of NSS (UNECE/WBI, 2007)