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Nigeria. Why Study Nigeria?. Nigeria is a megastate Its importance is derived from its large population, oil reserves, and centrality to the study of Africa Nigeria embodies the much of the variety of African political experience. Why Study Nigeria?.

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why study nigeria
Why Study Nigeria?
  • Nigeria is a megastate
  • Its importance is derived from its large population, oil reserves, and centrality to the study of Africa
  • Nigeria embodies the much of the variety of African political experience.
why study nigeria1
Why Study Nigeria?
  • Nigeria embodies of the variety of African political experience.
    • varied heritage
    • colonial rule
    • Achievement of independence
    • Political parties = ethnic cleavages
    • Social welfare state/responsibility
    • Pattern of violence and military dominance
why study nigeria2
Why Study Nigeria?
  • Provides useful insights into the challenges of developing nations
  • Major challenges facing Nigeria
    • Maintaining the balance of civil/military relations
    • Managing ethnic diversity
    • Transitioning from autocratic/military rule to democracy
    • Exploiting natural resources for public good
    • Determining role of religion in politics
country bio nigeria
Population: 140 million

Territory: 356,668 sq. miles

Year of Independence: 1960

Year of Current Constitution: 1979 Constitution still partially in force; draft 1995 Constitution published and revised in 1999 (the 1999 Constitution)

Head of State: President Goodluck Jonathan

Head of Government: President Goodluck Jonathan

Language: English (official), Hausa,Yoruba, Igbo, (and 250 other ethnic groups)


Muslim: 50%

Christian: 40%

Indigenous beliefs: 10%

Country Bio: Nigeria
overview the big picture
Overview: The Big Picture
  • System of Government: Presidential System
  • Distribution of Power: Federal System
  • Electoral System: Single Member District Plurality
  • Constitution: Constitution of 1999
  • Legislature: Bicameral—Senate and House of Rep.
  • Current Head of State: President Goodluck Jonathan
  • Head of Government: President Goodluck Jonathan
  • Current Ruling Party: People’s Democratic Party (PDP)
  • Major Political Parties: People’s Democratic Party (PDP) All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP), Action Congress (AC)
big ideas to keep in your head
Big Ideas to Keep in Your Head !
  • No Cross Cutting Cleavages
    • Ethnic, Regional, and Religious Coincide
  • No National Identity!
  • Nigeria is only 50 years old
  • Country created because of colonialism
  • Parliamentary system failed…why?
  • Presidential system is working…why?
nigeria s national question
Nigeria’s “National Question”

“National Question” = the differing opinions about how political power should be distributed and how the government should be structured.

  • In Nigeria differences are more distinct and run deeper than other countries
  • Since independence in 1960, neither its leaders nor its citizens agree on the basics of who should rule and how
  • Questions about whether Nigeria should remain one nation
  • Regional disagreements & hostilities
  • Problems traditionally solved by military force and authoritarianism
  • First constitution written in 1914
  • Eight constitutions between 1914 and 1995
  • Current constitution written in 1999
  • Acceptance of “constitutionalism” and the rule of law as a guiding set of principles has eluded Nigeria
      • Military and civilian leaders have felt free to disobey and suspend constitutional principles or change constitutions not to their liking
      • Without constitutionalism the “National Question” has been much harder to answer
  • Nigeria is a relatively young country, achieving independence in 1960, this makes establishing legitimate government more difficult
    • Fragmentation – tendency to fall apart along ethnic, regional, and/or religious lines.
    • Contradictory Influence of the Past – British colonial “rule of law” vs. Military rule/Personalized authority
    • Corruption – both military and civilian rule tainted with corruption. Citizens question the payment of taxes that are deposited in personal bank accounts
        • General Ibrahim Babangida (1985-1993)
        • General Sani Abacha (1993-1998)
political cleavages
Political Cleavages
  • Ethnicity – Nigeria has between 250-400 ethnic groups, Huasa-Fulani, Igbo, and Yoruba dominant. Three groups have very little in common and speak different languages
  • Religion – Islam, Christianity, and native/animist religions.
  • Region – follow along ethnic and religious lines
  • Urban vs. Rural Differences – most political organizing, interest groups, and political protest takes place in cities
  • Social Class – deep divisions among social classes. Wealth of elites stems from access to Nigeria’s resources. Maintained their power by appealing to religious and ethnic identities. Wealthy elite find it difficult to give up wealth associated with access to state treasury, educated elite would like to see adoption of democratic principles.
  • The importance of ethnicity, religion, and region in the political life of Nigerianscannot be underestimated.
  • Most contentious political issues influence and/or are influenced by these three identities.
  • Biafran Civil War 1967-1970
    • Explicit ethnic overtones
    • Eastern Igbo attempted to secede from the country











Nigeria’s Largest Ethnic Groups

  • Ethnic Identity
    • Hausa-Fulani
      • Mostly northern half of Nigeria
      • Predominately Muslim
      • Legacy of emirates
      • Indirect colonial rule
      • Subsistence farming, rural, generally undeveloped villages
    • Yoruba
      • Southwestern Nigeria
      • Lagos—former capital
      • Oba and lineage chiefs and the British
      • Fragmenting effect of multiple ethnic identities
    • Igbo (lbo)
      • Southeastern part of Nigeria—OIL RICH REGION (tried to secede)
      • Predominantly Christian (both Roman-Catholic and Protestants)
      • Responsive to western culture—Western educated
      • Developed for market agriculture
sharia in nigeria
Sharia in Nigeria
  • The source of political authority in the Northern states, NOT Southern states (the Hausa-Fulani and Kanuri people are predominantly Muslim)
  • Has caused conflict in the drafting of all three of Nigeria’s constitutions
  • Includes separate codes of conduct for men and women
  • Northern states have their own Islamic courts, where defendants represent themselves
  • Women are NOT allowed to vote under Islamic law in Nigeria

Political Culture

  • Modern political culture is characterized by ethnic diversity and conflict, corruption, and a politically active military
    • Patron-Clientelism
    • State control yet active civil society
    • Tension between modernity and tradition
    • Religious conflict
    • Ethnic diversity
    • Geographic influences
political culture and subculture
Political Culture and Subculture
  • Nigerians generally identify themselves first and foremost by their ethnic group, not as Nigerian
  • Few sources of Nigerian Nationalism
      • Nigerians who fought for the British in WWII
      • Nigerians who studied in U.K. and U.S.
      • The Military Today
political culture and subculture1
Political Culture and Subculture
  • Democratic Norms and Values
    • Alternated between democratic and military rule
    • Had both parliamentary and presidential system (federal/presidential system seems to work better in countries with such diversity)
    • Maintaining stable democracy is challenge
    • Most Nigerians believe that democracy is the best form of government, but they tend to distrust their elected leaders
political culture and subculture2
Political Culture and Subculture
  • Democratic Norms and Values
    • Cycle of Rule:
      • Democracy
      • Military rule with promise to return to democracy
      • Majority party would pass policies very easily and “funnel” resources of the state to its own ethnic group.
      • This would lead to frustration, hostility, and frequently a coup by one or more opposing parties or ethnic groups.
    • The Presidential system has been somewhat more successful due to separation of powers
    • Most of the educated people of Nigeria hold democratic values and have faith in the political process
political culture and subculture3
Political Culture and Subculture
  • Political Role of Women
    • Position of women varies immensely
    • Igbo and Yoruba allow women to hold jobs and elected office.
    • Hausa-Fulani restrict role of women (Islam) and have low rates of literacy and education and jobs
    • In general Nigerian women vote in similar numbers as men but are underrepresented in government.
  • Political Corruption
    • A pervasive problem--all governments claim they will make change, but don’t (can’t)
    • “Corruption has taken over the engine of government in Nigeria. It’s what runs everything.”-- Nuhu Ribadu, “corruption fighter”
patron clientelism prebendalism
Patron-Clientelism “prebendalism”
  • the practice of exchanging political and economic favors among patrons and clients… a practice that invites corruption
  • the patron (political leader) builds loyalty among his clients (lesser elites) by granting them favors that are denied to others… creating “loyalty pyramids”
  • Nigerian example: in exchange for political support, a Nigerian president may grant a portion of oil revenues to his client
  • society at-large does not benefit from these favors, generally the political elite do
  • In Nigeria, patrons are linked to clients by ethnicity and religion
types of corruption in nigeria
Types of Corruption in Nigeria
  • Political corruption
    • Corruption at the highest levels of political authority
    • Distorts institutions of government by greed of officials (especially local and state officials)
    • Since 1960, ~ $400 billion has disappeared from the Nigerian treasury, lining the pockets of many
  • Bureaucratic corruption
    • Lower levels of corruption encountered on a daily level in places like hospitals, schools, local licensing offices, etc.
  • Electoral corruption
    • Purchase of votes with money
    • Promises of political favors;
    • Interference in elections; intimidation at the polls
curbing corruption
Curbing Corruption?
  • Chairman of Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) from 2003-2007; appointed by President Obasanjo, who had run on an anti-corruption campaign
  • sent prominent businessmen and high-level government officials, including his own boss, to jail
  • took on Nigeria’s powerful governors, known for treating their states like personal fiefdoms, lining their pockets with federal money meant to serve the peoples’ needs
  • made a lot of powerful enemies during his tenure, while becoming a national hero to many Nigerians; the Nigerian press named him “Man of the Year”
  • many foreign companies operating in Nigeria, including American-based companies like KBR and Halliburton, have been fined millions of dollars

Nuhu Ribadu

“Nigerian corruption fighter”

curbing corruption1
Curbing Corruption?
  • dismissed from his job by President Yar’Adua in 2007
  • survived several assassination attempts and has worked for a Washington, D.C.- based think-tank for the last few years, The Center for Global Development
  • ran for president (and lost) in the 2011 elections representing the Action Congress Party
  • recently appointed by Goodluck Jonathan as the chair of a new 21-member oil watchdog taskforce; will monitor crude oil production and exports and track revenues paid to the government

Nuhu Ribadu

“Nigerian corruption fighter”

corruption levels 2011 cpi scores from transparency international
Corruption Levels2011 CPI scores from Transparency International

UK 7.8

Russia 2.4

China 3.6

Mexico 3.0

Iran 2.7

Nigeria 2.4

current policy challenges
Current Policy Challenges
  • Key Transition Year of 1999:
    • Nigeria returned to formal civilian rule when Olusegun Obasanjo was elected president.
  • Test of Current Government:
    • How can a potentially wealthy country fail to provide basic human needs, education, potable water, reliable transportation and communications, and engage in politics without corruption?
  • Still ranked as one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world
public policy challenges
Public Policy Challenges

To survive, or, more optimistically, flourish, Nigeria’s elected leaders face a myriad of economic and political challenges that will require a gradual and deliberate transformation bold enough to champion real change, but mindful that the military has the potential to return to power if given the opportunity.

The future of Nigeria hangs on this precarious balance

public policy challenges1
Public Policy Challenges
  • Ethnic/Religious Tensions
  • Civil/Military Relations
  • Regional Instability
  • Corruption
  • Financial transparency
  • Poverty alleviation
  • Quality health care
  • Population Growth
  • Education
  • Oil extraction
  • DEBT!
environmental potential and limitations
Environmental Potential and Limitations
  • Population Growth
    • 45% of Nigeria is under 15 years of age.
    • Children considered a valuable resource in agricultural societies
    • Population is growing rapidly = negative impact on economic growth
    • Shifting from rural to urban = smaller portion of labor force available for food production = drop in food production per capita
environmental potential and limitations1
Environmental Potential and Limitations
  • Agricultural Production & Sale of Commodities
    • Colonialism had a huge impact on Nigerian economy
    • British forced the production and export of certain goods
    • Peasant farmers pushed to grow and export goods chosen by the British
    • Nigeria became dependant on exports of commodities such as palm oil and cocoa
    • Nigeria is now a net importer of food!
environmental potential and limitations2
Environmental Potential and Limitations
  • Urbanization
    • Quickly becoming urban society
    • Urban infrastructure is strained as a result
  • Petroleum
    • The curse of oil!
    • Nigeria has relied on oil to finance imports and large scale development projects, thus fluctuations in markets control the ability of Nigeria to pay its debts
    • This has caused high rates of inflation
    • The location of the oil and the distribution of benefits have had political consequences, most notably in Biafra
    • Biafra
      • Igbo population frustrated with central government for not distributing a greater share of oil wealth-thus their attempt to secede
      • Oil was main cause for Biafran Civil War 1967-1970
environmental potential and limitations3
Environmental Potential and Limitations
  • Dist. Natural resources: Political Effects
    • Eastern region of country holds oil reserves
    • National government view: national resource
    • Eastern citizens (Igbo) have yet reaped full benefits of their treasure
    • Direct cause of Biafra Independence movement: secession
    • Individuals who own oil in east tend to be non-Igbo minorities
    • Environmental degradation: east pays price while handing over most of the benefits.
    • MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta)
  • The International Environment
    • Biggest problem: debt it owes Western creditors
    • Oil curse caused this
    • Government spends a high percentage of national budget repaying debt—at the expense of social programs.
mosop movement for the survival of the ogoni people
MOSOPMovement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
  • Non-violent movement founded in 1990 to bring attention to the environmental degradation in Ogoniland (NE Niger Delta)
  • Promotes self-determination and democracy for the Ogoni people
  • Opposes foreign oil companies extracting wealth from their homeland
  • The Nigerian government has responded with military force to break up protests and demonstrations
  • In 1995, under the Abacha regime, nine MOSOP leaders were convicted on “incite of murder” charges and hanged in an effort to silence their vocal opposition to foreign oil companies

Ken Saro Wiwa,

executed in 1995

mend movement for the emancipation of the niger delta
MENDMovement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta
  • Largest militant group active in the Niger Delta region
  • Advocates violence as a means of resistance to what they consider enslavement of the people of the Niger Delta region and the theft of their natural resources
  • Expose the exploitation of natural resources and the people of the region by public-private partnerships (Nigerian government and major oil companies—Shell, Chevron, etc.)
  • Tactics include bombing of pipelines, property destruction, sabotage of oil production equipment, and the kidnapping of foreign oil company employees
mend movement for the emancipation of the niger delta1
MENDMovement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta

In a January 2006 email, MEND warned the oil industry:

"It must be clear that the Nigerian government cannot protect your workers or assets. Leave our land while you can or die in it.... Our aim is to totally destroy the capacity of the Nigerian government to export oil."

policy formation and implementation
Policy Formation and Implementation
  • There are many policies that the current government is struggling with, including, corruption, debt, ethnic and religious conflict, HIV/AIDS, bureaucracy retraining
  • Nigeria’s public policies greatly affected by world community
    • World Bank “Structural Adjustment Program” or SAP
      • Generally favors privatization and free trade
    • International Monetary Fund
    • Both have been active in attempts to restructure Nigeria’s debt
  • Nigeria depends on its income from oil
    • Oil revenue income has been source of political corruption
    • Oil revenues down, corruption and mismanagement prevent state from being able to pay teachers and civil servants
    • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
    • NNOC (Nigerian National Oil Corporation)
policy formation and implementation1
Policy Formation and Implementation
  • Standard of living has not improved in recent years
  • Oil revenue has had little impact on GDP
  • Nigeria spends large portion of budget on military
    • Has enabled them to maintain a high profile in the region
  • Increased number of children in schools
  • Poor performance on providing basic health care
  • Income gap between rich and poor increased
  • “national cake”: Federal gov. spends between two-thirds three fourths

Political Traditions

  • Nigeria’s Political Traditions can be divided into three specific eras:
    • Pre-Colonial Era (800-1860)
    • Colonial Era (1860-1960)
    • Independence Era (1960-now)

Political Traditions

  • Pre-Colonial Era (800-1860)
    • Early Influence of Islam
    • Trade Connections
    • Kinship-based Politics
    • Complex Political Identities
    • Democratic Impulses

Political Traditions

  • Colonial Era (1860-1960)
    • Authoritarian Rule
    • Interventionist State
    • Individualism
    • Christianity
    • Intensification of Ethnic Politics

Political Traditions

  • Independence Era (1960-now)
    • Parliamentary-Style Government Replaced by Presidential System
    • Intensification of Ethnic Conflict
    • Military Rule
    • Personalized Rule and Corruption
    • Federalism
    • Dependence on Oil
the effects of history
The Effects of History
  • Nigerian Independence
    • October 1, 1960
      • Two year honeymoon period
      • Conflict: tore apart the ruling coalition in the Western region
      • National census
    • 1965 law and order broke down in Western Region over election-related fraud and violence
    • Military ended the First Republic in a January 1966 coup
    • Is there a role for obas and emirs in modern Nigeria?
political recruitment
Political Recruitment
  • Northerners have dominated the leadership of the country under military and civilian rule.
  • Military power
    • Educated Igbo's have held leadership positions
  • Role of Nigerian universities
  • Civil service
  • No recruitment of “strangers”
  • Federal character of appointments of military personnel
  • Ethnic politics still dominate
political structure
Political Structure
  • Parliamentary vs. Presidential
    • Fusion of power vs. separation of power
    • British established a parliamentary system like their own
    • First Republic followed this pattern
    • However, because parliamentary rule tends to yield easy results for the majority party and because stakes of losing are so high, parliamentary government led to massive conflict and ultimately failed
political structure1
Political Structure
  • Third Republic of 1993
  • Constitution of 1999
    • From 1983 to 1999, politics in Nigeria consisted of a succession of military regimes that planned a return to democracy
    • Abubakar handed over power to a civilian regime outlined by a constitution in 1999
    • This is the structure of government that has existed since then.
  • Federalism
    • Three level federalism: Federal, State and City
    • The number of states has changed three time—from 3 to 19 to 30 to 36
political structure2
Political Structure
  • Constitution of 1999
    • Calls for independently elected president
    • Dual chamber of national assembly at the federal level
    • 3 Senators from each of 36 states, plus one from Abuja
    • Representatives determined by population
    • All legislators elected to four year terms
    • Nigerian pluralism; lack of trust by subcultures
    • No institutional structure can overcome this roadblock.
political structure3
Political Structure
  • Judiciary: Constitution of 1999
    • Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeal
    • State and Federal High Courts
    • Ten northern states maintain shari’a law courts
    • Overlapping system of judiciary has caused conflict
political institutions
Political Institutions
  • Executive branch of government has been the most powerful
  • Current system is a federal system closely modeled after the U.S. presidential system
  • History
    • First Republic: British Parliamentary System
    • Second Republic: American Presidential System
    • Third and Fourth: Revived Presidential Model


May 2010 – present Goodluck Jonathan President


Goodluck Jonathan,

Current President

executive branch
Executive Branch

Popularly elected to four-year term with maximum of two terms

Head of Government

Commander-in-Chief of armed forces

Head of State

Appoints government ministers (confirmed by Senate)—must come from all 36 states

Federal Executive Council: Ensures laws are properly implemented

President and ministers not allowed to serve in National Assembly

legislative branch
Legislative Branch
  • National Assembly
    • Bicameral with Senate and House of Representatives
    • Popularly Elected
    • All bills must pass both houses and be signed by President
    • Senate
      • 109 members: 3 from each state and one from Abuja
    • House of Representatives
      • 360 members
  • Responsible for the interpretation of laws in accordance with the constitution.
  • Supreme Court (highest in the land)
  • Court of Appeal (federal and state)
  • Federal High Court (federal and state)
  • Shari’a Court of Appeal:
    • Abuja and state courts
state government
State Government
  • Governor who is popularly elected
  • State House of Assembly
    • Unicameral
    • Comprised of popularly elected representatives from local government areas
    • The number of members in each state assembly is comprised of three times the number of seats in the federal House of Representatives
the military
The Military
  • You cannot study Nigerian politics without recognizing the importance of the military in all aspects of political life.
  • A mix of ethnic groups
  • Well disciplined, organized, with the ability to make decisions efficiently and effectively
  • One of only sources of national unity
  • Armed forces also seen as more representative than political parties and other institutions of government that are subject to ethnic-based patronage.
  • HOWEVER, ethnic cleavages are the backdrop to military/authoritarian rule
the bureaucracy
The Bureaucracy

As with many “developing nations”, the bureaucracy has been the source of employment for large numbers of people not engaged in trade or agriculture.

Major source of corruption due to political instability, lack of accountability, and massive cash from oil production.

Bureaucracy has maintained its power throughout military and civilian rule

  • The first political parties in Nigeria were, for the most part, ethnically based.
  • Little is done to reach out beyond ethnic power base
    • Impact: ethnicizing and regionalizing the national political process, turning politics into a zero-sum game of winners and losers
interest articulation
Interest Articulation
  • Nigeria has an active civil society
  • Two main sources:
    • Organized Interest Groups and “Clientelism”
  • Many formal associations have an ethnic base, but there are numerous informal associations as well
  • Professional organizations such as unions representing petroleum workers and formal professional associations play a role in politics.
  • Ethnic and Religious Associations
    • MOSOP (Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People)
      • Spoke for those who owned land now occupied by oil rigs and has seen environmental destruction
      • Ken Saro-Wiwa
        • Imprisoned and executed by Abache military dictatorship
interest articulation1
Associational groups

Labor Unions usually organized by sector

Universities source of political activism

National Union of Petroleum and Gas Workers (NUPENG)

Nigerian Bar Association

Nigerian Medical Association

No farmer groups…ethnic divisions prevented this.

Non-associational Groups

Kaduna Mafia

A network of powerful northern military leaders who maintain strong influence over military and politics and are engaged in organized crime

Patron-Client Networks

Powerful political figures are able to mobilize support through personal connections with subordinates


Interest Articulation
political participation
Political Participation
  • Great range in activity
    • Voting
    • Civil war
    • Violence; thugs
  • Without census data hard to assess
  • Mobilization of patron-client networks key to victory
  • Rise in honest and responsive institutions
parties and elections
Parties and Elections
  • Constitution of 1999 written to promote national parties and to deflect conflict between ethnic groups
  • Goal of Constitution to ensure that candidates for office had broad public support
  • Example: It specified that to be elected president, a candidate would have to poll at least 25 percent of votes cast in at least two-thirds of states.
parties and elections history
Parties and Elections (History)
  • 1975 Elections controlled by Federal Elections Commission (FEDECO)
  • All parties must register with FEDECO
  • “Federal Character” of parties
  • Parties have to show some support (25%) in at least two-thirds of all states to be able to run candidates
  • Indep. National Election Commission (INEC) 1999
  • Obasanjo was elected under this system PDP
    • PDP: People’s Democratic Party
    • As a northerner and a Hausa, he is a Christian and his candidacy received broad popular support
parties and elections history1
Parties and Elections (History)
  • Ethnic Solidarity and Party Loyalty
    • In 1999 the party system had consolidated into three major parties.
    • Each of these parties had a base of support from one of the three major ethnic groups
    • However, due to the requirements of INEC (formerly FEDECO), each had to have regional support
      • Example: The PDP (People’s Democratic Party) is said to have it support in the north
  • Election of 2007
    • Umar Musa Yar’adua won
    • The election marked first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in Nigerian history
    • Charges of widespread fraud and denial of voting rights
the parties
The Parties
  • People’s Democratic Party (PDP)
    • Hausa-Fulani and North
    • Obasanjo and Umar Musa Yar’adua
  • All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) 2003
    • Formally the All People’s Party APP 1999
    • Igbo and East/Southeast
    • Main opposition party
    • Ran Former General Muhammadu Buhari in 2003 and 2007.
  • Action Congress (AC)
    • Merger of Alliance for Democracy, Justice Party, Advance of Democrats
    • Yoruba and West/Southwest
    • Ran Atiku Abubakar in 2007
policy formation and implementation2
Policy Formation and Implementation
  • Dealing with Debt and SAP
    • Borrowed heavily from foreign banks in 1970s
    • High interest caused debt trap
    • World Bank and IMF restructured much of the debt
    • Spending to repay debt = highest item in annual budget
    • The problem of how to deal with debt is one of highest items of priority
policy formation and implementation3
Policy Formation and Implementation
  • The Census Issue
    • Major source of political conflict!...that’s right counting people
    • More People = More Federal Money
    • This is because each ethnic group fears that the count will inaccurately reflect larger opposing groups and that the state’s resources will be directed accordingly
    • Also, in a country where federal subsidies make up the lion’s share of budgetary allocations at all levels, the distribution of population directly affects the distribution of resources.
nigeria in africa and the world
Nigeria in Africa and the World
  • Has the population and resources to be a regional power
  • Economic Community of West African States
    • Free trade zones
    • Critic of international organizations’ monetary policy: World Bank, IMF
  • France- closer economic ties
  • U.S. and Britain – condemnation of military rulers
sample frq
Sample FRQ

Colonialism had an impact on both the colonizer and the colonized.

(A) Describe two examples of how colonialism has shaped contemporary politics in Nigeria.

(B) Describe two examples of how colonialism has shaped contemporary politics in Great Britain.

sample frq1
Sample FRQ

ANSWER A Acceptable descriptions of how colonialism shaped contemporary politics in Nigeria:

  • Inhibits national identity formation: colonial rule created regional identities and rearranged boundaries
  • Ethnic and religious divisions and tensions: Indigenous and Christian religions in the south, Islam in the north; underlying ethnic identities; rearranged boundaries
  • Residual colonial institutional and cultural features: bureaucracy, language, colonial boundaries
  • Dependency: extractive economic relations with the West and former colonial power; neocolonialism (continued exploitation)
  • System of government: Westminster and procedural features of western democracy
  • Ineffective civil society and weak democratic consolidation: authoritarian colonial structure disrupted consensus-based indigenous political systems; evolution of dominant executives; corruption (prebendalism)
sample frq2
Sample FRQ

ANSWER B Acceptable descriptions of how colonialism influenced contemporary politics in Great Britain:

  • Multi-ethnic/multi-racial society: immigrant presence from former colonies
  • Rise in nationalism: anti-immigrant tendencies and xenophobia
  • More inclusive political institutions and society: immigrant representation in political offices and social sectors
  • Resurgent nationalism: self-determination movements in colonies fostered a shift in the way that sub-national groups sought greater autonomy
  • The British Commonwealth offers a framework for contemporary foreign policy interaction between Great Britain and its former colonies
  • International influence is partially sustained on wealth from exploitation of natural resources and trade arrangements with former colonies