Introduction. Microwaves have frequencies > 1 GHz approx.Stray reactances are more important as frequency increasesTransmission line techniques must be applied to short conductors like circuit board tracesDevice capacitance and transit time are importantCable losses increase: waveguides often u
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T = period of oscillation
d = thickness of device
v = drift velocity, about 1 105 m/s
R = ct/2
Rmax = cT/2
Rmin = cTP/2