Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Krashen’s Monitor Model proposed that only “acquisition” or subconsciously acquired knowledge leads to productive output; “learning,” the learner’s conscious knowledge of the rules of a language, only serves as a monitor.
Affective FilterHypothesis A hypothesis of the Monitor Model suggesting an affective filter can block access to language acquisition under certain conditions, such as when the learner is stressed or anxious.
automaticprocessing In an information-processingview, thisoccurswhen a skillbecomespracticed and canbecarried out relativelyrapidly and withoutconscious effort or short-termmemory limitations.
cognitive linguistics (CL) An approach viewing meaning as central to language; language is seen as inextricably linked to cognition.
complex adaptive system (CAS) The view that language is acquired and develops through the combined influences of social interaction and cognitive processes.
Comprehensible Input Hypothesis Monitor Model hypothesisstatingthat the mosteffective way to increase L2 competence is by exposure to “comprehensible input” (one level beyond the learner’s current level).
ComprehensibleOutput Hypothesis Swain (1985) proposedthathaving to produce the L2 encourages the learner to attend to the language and therebyleads to improvedproficiency.
contrastive analysis The comparison of the linguistic structures of two or more languages, to determinetheirsimilarities and differences. In 1950s and 1960s, itwasused as a tool for L2 teaching.
Contrastive AnalysisHypothesis(CAH) In the strong form, this predicts that where there are similarities between the two languages, the learner will acquire L2 structures with ease; where there are differences, the learner will have difficulty.
controlledprocessing In an information-processingview, controlledprocessingcharacterizes new skilllearning, iscomparatively slow and effortful, and islimited by short-termmemoryconstraints.
cross-linguistic influence(CLI) Refers to instances of phonological, lexical, grammatical, or other aspects of transfer from one language to another.
developmentalerror An error in learnerlanguagewhichdoes not resultfromtransferfrom the first language, but whichreflects the learner’sgradualdiscovery of the L2 system.
ErrorAnalysis (EA) An approach to L2 acquisition researchinvolving the description and classification of errors to gain insight into the learner's current underlying knowledge of the L2 system.
explicit knowledge In SLA, knowledge of the L2 (vocabulary, grammarrules, etc.) of whichlearners are explicitlyaware.
explicit learning Learning with explicit awareness of whatisbeinglearned.
implicitknowledge In SLA, knowledge of the L2 thatunderlies the learner’sperformance, but of which he or she is not explicitly aware.
implicitlearning Learning withoutawareness of whatisbeinglearned.
information-processingapproach (or cognitive approach) Stemming from cognitive psychology, this approach emphasizes that the mental processes used for interpreting experience are also involved in the acquisition and use of a second language.
input processing (IP) Model proposed by VanPatten on how learners make form-meaning connections: learners have limited processing capacity so give priority to meaning.
intake The part of input that the learner notices.
Interaction Hypothesis Hypothesis proposed by Long (1983) predicting that interactional modification makes input comprehensible; comprehensible input promotes acquisition; therefore, interactional modification promotes acquisition.
interlanguage A term for the languageproduced by a learnerthatdiffers in systematicwaysfromthat of a native speaker.
language acquisition device An elementthat UG linguistsoriginallyproposed as an innate component, or mental organ, to account for language acquisition.
Monitor Model Krashen’s model of second language acquisition based on the concept that learners have two systems (acquisition and learning) and that the learned system acts as a monitor (editor) on the acquired system.