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  1. Prevent Infesting Opportunities with Diacon® IGR

  2. Presented to (insert Company name) Presented by (insert name) (insert date)

  3. Topics • Why Control Stored Commodity Insects • Integrated Pest Management • Chemical Control Products • Diacon® IGR

  4. Why Control Insects?

  5. Indian Meal Moth Population Build-up Assumes one female lays 300 eggs that mature into 150 females in 60 days under ideal conditions. From 1 Female to 1 Billion Eggs in 180 Days.

  6. Economic Impact • Significant economic losses can be attributed to stored product pests • Growers and Shippers lose directly from the percentage of IDK (insect damaged kernels) • *US suffers an approximately $1 billion (5-10%) annual loss for storage insects *http://ars.usda.gov

  7. Damage Discounts • Insect Damaged Kernels • 1 to 5, no discount • 6 to 20, 1 cent each kernel • 21 to 31, 2 cents each kernel • 32 and above, rejected Lesser grain borer

  8. Stored Product IPM

  9. Storage • The objective of storage • To maintain the quality of stored products after harvest and before end use. • The dilemma of storage • Quality never improves with storage. • Links • http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu • http://cropwatch.unl.edu • http://lancaster.unl.edu/ag/crops/storage.shtml

  10. An IPM Approach • It has been accepted that an Integrated Pest Management plan for stored product pests is critical for an effective control program.

  11. An IPM Approach • Commonly accepted key components: • Sanitation and Exclusion • Loading • Chemical Control • Aeration • Monitoring

  12. Sanitation • Begin with a clean secure storage • Clean out all old grain including all cracks, crevices, false floors and walls. Don’t forget to empty any augers or conveyors of old grain. Don’t mix old grain with new crop. • Repair any holes in roofs or walls, and patch all cracked and broken concrete. • Clear weeds from 6’ around the outside of the storage. Clean up all spilled grain. • Heat treat or use other means for any areas that can’t be reached. • Apply a protectant to all surfaces of the storage • Spray the inside and up to 6’ high around the outside with a labeled product like Diacon® II and/or Tempo® according to label directions.

  13. Loading/Filling Bins • Pre-Cleaning • Remove fines, broken grain, and some insects. • Apply chemical protection such as Diacon® IGR • Leveling • Spread the incoming grain so there is no peak in the middle, this also spreads fines as the bin fills. Airflow is improved if the fines aren’t concentrated in the center of the grain mass.

  14. Fines Accumulate in the Middle of the Grain Mass

  15. Air movement in peaked vs. level grain mass

  16. Aeration • Effectively slows insect activity by lowering temperatures. • Moving air is getting more expensive. To lower air temperature from harvest temperature to 60°F; • USDA in 2000 estimated 1.6 to 2.4¢/bu. • Montana estimate is 2.5¢/bu. • Kentucky study estimates 7.8¢/bu. • It is dependent on cooler outside air availability, temperature of the stored crop, and cost of energy to run fans. • It can be used in combination with a protectant chemical such as Diacon® IGR.

  17. Monitoring • Monitor grain for insects and other problems throughout the storage period. • Probes • Temperature probes • CO2 monitoring for insect and fungal activity • Insect traps • Watch for immigration or population build up (How would you tell the difference?) • Manually observe and take core samples on a regular basis. • Turn grain and take samples to be screened for insect.

  18. Summary • Stored product insects damage valuable commodities everyday at a cost of $425 - $850 million annually or 5-10% of wheat alone. • An integrated pest management approach for controlling stored product pests is a cost effective approach to protecting grains and food commodities. • Diacon® IGR is an important component of any IPM program to stop damage to your grain and keep you profitable. • Your Return On Investment (ROI) is at least 6:1

  19. Chemical Control Products

  20. Chemical Control Options • Fumigants • Aluminum/Magnesium Phosphide • Short residual, restricted use chemicals, useful only under qualified conditions. • Protectants • Malathion, OP-Pyrethroids (Storecide® II), OP (Actellic®), Bio-pesticides (Bti) • Some w/o Codex MRL, limited crop label. • Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) • Diacon® IGR • Codex tolerance for cereal grain, use on all ag commodities, long residual, good economics.

  21. What’s Diacon® IGR?- An Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) • Synthetic copy of natural insect chemistry. • Insect cannot distinguish between natural and synthetic. • Disrupts normal biochemical pathways, preventing insects from progressing to adults.

  22. What’s Diacon® IGR? • Affects immature stages, but most prominently at transition from pupa to adult. • IGRs effectively break the life cycle of reproduction, eliminating subsequent generations. • (S)-Methoprene – the IGR of choice!

  23. Diacon® IGR • Unlike direct toxicants like Actellic®, Malathion, Storcide® II, and Fumigants. • An IGR prevents insects from maturing to adults, therefore they can’t breed and the population dies out.

  24. Indian Meal Moth Population Build-up Assumes one female lays 300 eggs that mature into 150 females in 60 days under ideal conditions. From 1 Female to 1 Billion Eggs in 180 Days.

  25. Wide Range of Activity • Various formulations of (S)-Methoprene will control the following pests: • Stored product pests; beetles, moths • Mushroom flies, fungus gnats • Ants • Horn flies • Mosquitoes • Fleas • Midges

  26. Current EPA Tolerances • (S)-Methoprene and Freedom from Tolerance • In June, 2003, the EPA announced that (S)-Methoprene was exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities when used to control insect larvae.

  27. Environmental Issues • No environmental concerns • Chemically, contains only carbon, hydrogen & oxygen • (S)-Methoprene is registered for use in aquatic environments for mosquitoes. • Used as a cattle feed-through (Altosid® IGR) • No bioaccumulation • Short life in outdoors • Insect specific • Excellent toxicity profile

  28. Comparative Acute Toxicities Oral LD50 (mg/kg) LD50 = The larger the value, the smaller the toxicity Phostoxin 11.5 Dichlorvos 56 Caffeine 355 Pyrethrins 1500 Salicylic acid 1600 Malathion 2200 Methoprene >34560

  29. Effect of Diacon® IGR at Recommended Rate • Affects immature stages, but most prominently formation or development in pupal-to-adult transition at the recommended rates.

  30. Efficacy • >90% inhibition of adult emergence for the following species @ 1 – 5 ppm. • Lesser Grain Borer • Red Flour Beetle • Saw Tooth Grain Beetle • Confused Flour Beetle • Indian Meal Moth • Merchant Grain Beetle • Residual activity up to and more than one year depending on conditions and application rates.

  31. Insect Control with Diacon®-D IGR14 Month Lab Trial Diacon®-D was used at 10lb/1000bu. Fresh adults of each species were added monthly and inhibition was calculated every 60 days over the 14 month period.

  32. Diacon® IGR Efficacy Less effective on weevils Exit hole

  33. Codex Maximum Residue Limits (MRL’s) • GROUP 15 - CEREAL GRAINS • Cereal grains are derived from the clusters of starchy seeds produced by a variety of plants primarily of the grass family (Gramineae). Husks are removed before consumption. • Cereal grains: • Barley - Rye • Maize - Sorghum • Oats - Sweet corn • Rice - Wheat • The Codex MRL for methoprene on cereal grain is 10 mg ai/kg or 10 ppm.

  34. Commonly Used Application Rates Diacon® II IGR Diacon® -D IGR • Wheat 4.0 (1.3 ppm) • Field Corn 4.0 • Sorghum 4.0 • Barley 4.0 (1.6 ppm) • Oats 4.0 • Peanuts 4.0 • Rice 4.0 • Popcorn 4.0 • Sunflower 4.0 (2.6 ppm) • For other commodities, see label • (oz. per 1000 bushels) (oz. per 1000 bushels) 8 to 10 lbs for all Commodities (1.04-1.3 ppm on wheat) See label for higher and lower rates that correspond with longer and shorter storage periods.

  35. Diacon® II IGR • Emulsifiable concentrate • Contains 33.6 % (S)-Methoprene • Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) • Available in one liter plastic bottles and one gallon tip ‘n measure bottles • Four liters to a case • Four gallons per case • Also 2x2.5 gallon container

  36. Diacon® II IGR Use Patterns • On grain • Bin or silo surface treatment • Fogging/Aqueous spray • Additional Use Areas • Food processing - breweries • food service - candy processing • food preparation - pet food production • Mills - grocery stores • Bakeries - rail cars • Restaurants - ships • Taverns - trucks • industrial buildings - bottling facilities • cereal processing • In addition spray on, packaged, canned, bottled foodstuff, boxes, liners, pallets.

  37. Diacon® II IGR Application Tips • Apply early in season, typically at harvest, as commodity is being transported into bins. • Fogging units (cold, thermal), back pack, or power sprayer are acceptable equipment for applications. • Can be tank mixed with adulticides. • Treat empty storage facilities tank mixed with an approved adulticide.

  38. Aqueous Spray • For surface area treatments. • Use water as diluent. • 1 ml in 1 gallon of diluent per 1,000 square feet of surface area. • Use diluted mixture within 72 hours. • May be tank-mixed with a suitable adulticide.

  39. Aerosol Generator • Use cold foggers or thermal units. • Dilute with water/oil. • Follow instructions of equipment manufacturer. • 1 ml (1/30 oz) in one gal. of diluent per 1,000 square feet surface. • 3 ml (1/10 oz) in one gal. of diluent per 10,000 cubic feet space.

  40. Diluents • Water or oil; water recommended for peanuts. • Up to five gallons of diluent per 1,000 bushels. • Applied to grain stream. • Can be applied with dust control oils.

  41. Diacon®-D IGR • Dry formulation • 0.80 % (S)-Methoprene • Rate of application • 8 to 10 pounds per 1,000 bushels • Package – 40 pound bag in a box • General use “Caution” label • Gloves and dust mask required as PPE

  42. Diacon®-D IGR • Can be used in all areas of the grain industry. • Farm Storage • Terminal and Country Elevators • Grain Processors • Feed Mills • Flour Mills • Designed for use on all grains, seeds, birdseed, animal feeds, spices, peanuts and more! • Residual protection will reduce need for fumigation or turning bins.

  43. Diacon®-D IGR • Carrier • Non–abrasive • No effect on grain flow • No negative effect on test weight • Easy to apply through augers with the following diameters: • 8” -- 2,500-3,500 bu/hr 25-35 lb/hr Diacon®-D • 10” -- 4,000-6,000 bu/hr 40-60 lb/hr Diacon®-D • 12” -- 6,500-10,000 bu/hr 65-100 lb/hr Diacon®-D

  44. Diacon® IGR • For additional information relating to labeled uses, application rates, application equipment, pricing, etc., please contact your local distributor representative or visit www.diacon2.com.

  45. Any questions? Thank You